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Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
Cell Function Notes Sub
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Cell Function Notes Sub

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  • 1. Cell Function Notes 4/2/09
  • 2. Cells: Movement of Substances <ul><li>cell membrane is made up of phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins </li></ul>
  • 3. Cells: Movement of Substances <ul><li>model for this is called fluid mosaic model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it is a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Cells: Movement of Substances <ul><ul><li>receptor proteins on surfaces recognize and accept other substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carrier proteins extend through the membrane and actively move substances through </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Cells: Movement of Substances
  • 6. Cells: Movement of Substances <ul><li>ability to move substances in and out of cell is directly related to available surface area </li></ul>
  • 7. Cells: Movement of Substances <ul><li>function of membranes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maintain integrity of cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control permeability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>permeable – all molecules pass through </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>impermeable – no molecules pass through </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>differentially (selectively) permeable – only some molecules can pass </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. Cells: Movement of Substances <ul><li>concentration gradients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the concentration at various points between the high and low forms a gradient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>moving high to low is “down” or “with” the gradient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>moving low to high is “up” or “against” the gradient </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Cells: Movement of Substances <ul><li>active transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>requires energy by cell to move molecules against (up) the concentration gradient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physiological pumps (NaK) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>endocytosis and exocytosis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 10. Cells: Movement of Substances <ul><li>passive transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>requires no energy by the cell, molecules move down the concentration gradient </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Cells: Movement of Substances <ul><li>passive transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smell of popcorn </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>drop of food coloring in water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 12. Cells: Movement of Substances <ul><li>passive transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>osmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>movement of water through membranes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to determine if the water will travel into or out of the cell, you need to compare the solute concentration or tonicity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>solute – the substance being dissolved </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>solution – the liquid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 13. Cells: Movement of Substances <ul><li>passive transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tonicity is the relative concentration of solutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>isotonic : solute concentrations are equal in cell and solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>molecules will move into and out of cell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 14. Cells: Movement of Substances <ul><li>passive transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tonicity is the relative concentration of solutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hypotonic : has less solutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>surrounding fluid has LOWER conc. than cell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a cell in a hypotonic solution will expand as water flows into the cell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plant cell – turgor pressure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>animal cell – cytolysis (bursts) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 15. Cells: Movement of Substances <ul><li>passive transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tonicity is the relative concentration of solutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hypertonic : has more solutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>surrounding fluid has HIGHER conc. than cell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a cell in a hypertonic solution will shrink as water flows out of cell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in both plants and animal cells this is called plasmylosis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is why plants wilt! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 16. Cells: Movement of Substances
  • 17. EXAMPLE <ul><li>Plant Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>guard cells control size of stomates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stomate is an opening on bottom surface of leaf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>when guard cells expand, stomate closes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>when guard cells shrink, stomate opens </li></ul></ul></ul>

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