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  • On behalf of my co-authorsIncreased concern of the effect of indoor-genereated pollutants on humans, and also materials.
  • As we can see in the scheme, there are a number of exogeneous and endogenous factors affecting the stability of heritage materials. Vas are particularly interesting as they can be both emitted and absorbedI wanted to start with this cycle, which is probably familiar to most of you here, showing the factors affecting the stability of heritage materials. These factors may affect materials by either causing the emission of VOCs or also the absorption of VOC. This cycle may thus results in the build-up of VOCs, including Vas in repositories holding these materials. Various endogenous and exogenous factors affecting stability of paper. VOCs can be both emitted and reabsorbed, which can lead to infectious spreading of degradation across objects. as they are both emitted and reabsorbed by paper and can lead to cross-infectionand spread of degradation over different objects.Why is the investigation of VOCs important? It is well known that as materials degrade VOCs are emitted into the environment. This may lead to a build-up of these same VOCs inside the archives and libraries, which can themselves cause the further degradation of materials. Thus, a vicious circle may be entered into. However, so far, no systematic study has been carried out to investigate their presence in libraries and archives. This was thus the aim of these investigations.
  • Both active and passive samplers
  • concentrations of volatile aldehydes in library andarchival environments are in the low ppb region. Remarkably low variation was found in thewide range of repository types, however. The most important conclusions are:- The highest concentrations of volatile aldehydes were recorded in a non-ventilatedrepository containing newsprint material, probably due to its low stability.- Ventilation and filtration have a small positive effect on the concentration of volatilealdehydes in the observed NA and TNA repositories. It is possible that aldehydesare removed by oxidation faster than by forced removal, which could be the reasonfor the observed very similar concentrations in various repositories, and in addition,very similar to those in closed boxes.- An additional finding supporting the previous conclusion is that the concentration ofaldehydes in boxes is similar to the environment outside the boxes, while theconcentration of acids is much higher and the concentration of the monitoredpollutant gases with an oxidising effect, such as NO2, is lower.- Inside boxes, the concentration of tVOCs and organic acids is significantly higherthan outside boxes, and can exceed the concentration of NO2 by 10 times.- The concentrations to which personnel working in archives and libraries areexposed to are well below even the most stringent limits set by health and safetyagencies, although the cumulative aldehyde concentration may approach the TWAlimit set by NIOSH (16 ppb).

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  • Volatile Aldehydes in Libraries and Archives
    A. Fenech1, M. Strlič1, I. Kralj Cigić2, A. Levart3, L. T. Gibson4,
    G. de Bruin5, K. Ntanos6, J. Kolar7, M. Cassar1
    1 University College London, Centre for Sustainable Heritage, UK;
    2 University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    3 University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    4 Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    5 Nationaal Archief, The Hague, The Netherlands
    6 The National Archives, Kew, UK
    7 National and University Library, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Introduction
    VAs
    Factors Affecting Stability
    VAs
    To date limited knowledge exists on volatile aldehydes in libraries and archives
    This systematic study investigates their presence and their effect on vulnerable photographic prints
    This presentation is based on work published in: Fenech, A., Strlič, M., Cigić, I. K., Levart, A., Gibson, L. T., De Bruin, G., Ntanos, K., Kolar, J. & Cassar, M. (2010) Volatile Aldehydes in Libraries and Archives. Atmospheric Environment, in press.
    Introduction
    Experimental
    Investigations
    Case Study
    Conclusions
  • The Repositories
    Introduction
    Experimental
    Investigations
    Case Study
    Conclusions
  • Sampling Methods
    Passive sampling
    Active sampling
    Introduction
    Experimental
    Investigations
    Case Study
    Conclusions
  • Volatile Aldehydes in Repositories
    Introduction
    Experimental
    Results
    Case Study
    Conclusions
  • Analysis of Results: PCA
    Filtered and/or
    Ventilated Repositories
    Archival Boxes
    Non-Ventilated Repositories
    Newsprint Repository
    Low-Load Library
    Introduction
    Experimental
    Case Study
    Conclusions
    Results
  • Personnel Exposure to VAs
    NIOSH Formaldehyde TWA: 16 ppb
    Introduction
    Experimental
    Case Study
    Conclusions
    Results
  • Indoor and Outdoor Pollutants at TNA
    Introduction
    Experimental
    Case Study
    Conclusions
    Results
  • Indoor and Outdoor Pollutants at TNA
    Introduction
    Experimental
    Case Study
    Conclusions
    Results
  • Case Study: Colour Photographs
    Introduction
    Experimental
    Investigations
    Case Study
    Conclusions
  • Results to Date
    Low variation found in a wide range of repositories => Aldehydes may be removed faster by oxidation or surface removal than by forced removal
    Acetic acid the most abundant pollutant inside archival boxes, and the one which has the greatest degrading effect
    Personnel exposure levels below even the most stringent health and safety limits
    Introduction
    Experimental
    Investigations
    Case Study
    Conclusions
  • Future Work
    Investigate the effect the pollutants have on archival material
    Investigate the interaction of pollutant concentration, RH and temperature together and with archival material
    Possibility of a Review of Environmental Guidelines
    Introduction
    Experimental
    Investigations
    Case Study
    Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
    UK AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme (project CDA 08/412 additionally supported by the National Archives, UK)
    The Slovenian Research Agency (Programme P1-0153, and project PaperVOC additionally supported by Nationaal Archief, The Netherlands)
    St Paul's Cathedral: J. Wisdom, S. Carter and T. Heady
    University of Strathclyde: C. King
    Thank You
    a.fenech@ucl.ac.uk
    Introduction
    Experimental
    Investigations
    Case Study
    Conclusions