Text types


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Text types

  1. 1. Text types Working with language
  2. 2. News reportage <ul><li>News reports inform readers of recent or current events. Ideally news journalists should suppress their personal opinions and report neutrally. </li></ul><ul><li>What is typical for a news reportage? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The absence of 1. and 2. persons pronouns- I/me/mine or you/your/yours no use of. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The heading compresses a lot of meaning in few words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The vocabulary is somewhere between formal and informal; commit, adopt measures, </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. News reportage continues <ul><ul><li>Nominalizations and passive forms. Both features serve to hide who carries out actions and make it more impersonal. Instead the actions are turned into “things” that can be talked about. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Advertising <ul><li>The purpose of advertisements and other promotional materials is to persuade readers to change their behavior and buy products and services, contribute to good causes, join campaigns etc. Such material speaks glowingly of the qualities for whatever is promoted, adds often appeal to the readers’ vanity, insecurity, aspiration to rice in society and so on. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Advertisement continues <ul><ul><li>Advertisement often adopt an informal, personal and interactive approach. This means that personal pronouns like you and we are used, buyer and seller. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are full of positive evaluations of whatever is advertised or promoted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They exploit special features of spacing and layout and typically rely on pictures to make the message easy to understand </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Instructions <ul><li>The most obvious examples of this genre are cooking recipes, safety instructions, manuals etc. where the reader is told how to do things </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cook spaghetti according to instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You ought to start with an outline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why don’t you give her a call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps it is better to wait for some days </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Argumentative writing <ul><li>This text type refers to writing which addresses an issue or question and argues for or against a position. </li></ul><ul><li>In argumentative writing we use language to inform, to express our reactions and feelings and to convince the reader that our views are sound and correct. </li></ul><ul><li>Counter arguments – bring in a clincher. Interactive sentence forms like the interrogative and the imperative. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Report <ul><li>A report is ideally a text which is based on facts and not on value judgments. However, in many cases it does contain the reporter’s opinion, either directly or indirectly, in which case it may influence whatever decision is to be made on the basis of the report. </li></ul><ul><li>The preferred form is a clear and concise run-down of facts, often presented in simple language . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Report continues <ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Creative writing - fiction <ul><li>Fiction is text about imaginary events and people. Novels and short stories are the two main types of fictional writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterization </li></ul><ul><li>Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Plot </li></ul><ul><li>Point of view </li></ul>
  11. 11. Creative writing - continues <ul><ul><li>The handsome young man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Something was moving in the bushes across the footpath – she heard something moving in the bushes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active verbs tell us what characters do. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The difference in the narrator – who tells the story? </li></ul></ul>