The Disunited Kingdom Is the United Kingdom past its sell-by date? Lecture by Richard Burgess A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Ric...
<ul><li>I belong to the group of historical colleagues who hold that the United Kingdom was established to serve the inter...
A selection of book titles from around 2000  <ul><li>The Death of Britain by John Redwood </li></ul><ul><li>The Abolition ...
” Rule Britannia” <ul><li>Words written by a Scot  </li></ul><ul><li>James Thomson (1700-1748)  </li></ul><ul><li>First pe...
When was Britain born? A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess 1603? 1707? 1746? 1922?
A. What was the glue that kept the Union together? A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
1. Protestantism <ul><ul><li>The Church of England (the Anglican Church)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Church of Scotlan...
” The Papist Threat” A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
Also a real threat <ul><li>Jacobite plots, uprisings  and invasions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1708 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
2. A foreign monarchy <ul><li>the House of Hanover </li></ul><ul><li>the House of Saxe-Coburg </li></ul><ul><li>the House ...
<ul><li>HRH Michael James Alexander Stewart of Albany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a.k.a. Michel Roger Lafosse from Belgium </li>...
A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
3. Britain – the beleaguered island <ul><li>France – a defining factor for British identity! </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom...
The ever-changing French threat… A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
<ul><li>” The sea and the chalk cliffs are Britain’s best allies”  </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Salisbury 1888 </li></ul>A Disun...
4. The Empire A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
Empire – the Union’s raison d’être <ul><li>Pre-union England – ”heretics and plunderers”  (Andrew Marr) </li></ul><ul><li>...
A British, not an English Empire A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess Thomas Cochrane: The real-life ”Hornblower”    -...
The British Army and Navy <ul><li>Fighting distant natives and European neighbours  </li></ul><ul><li>Essential bearer of ...
B. When the spell stops working… A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
” Britishness” in retreat <ul><li>Increasing American influence worldwide, but also in Britain itself </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
<ul><li>Protestantism losing its hold.. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multifaith society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing secula...
<ul><li>” Whiteness” in retreat </li></ul><ul><li>British institutions undermined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British Rail </li>...
A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess The Monarchy in Decline
The European Union <ul><ul><li>Cooperation rather than competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fostering regionalism rather...
<ul><li>The Channel Tunnel terminal at Folkestone </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
C. The resurgence of nationalism A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
1. The Dark Ages Still Matter A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess Loegr = England    lit. ”the lost lands”
Our ancient prejudices <ul><li>Sassanach = Saxon </li></ul><ul><li>To welsh/welch on someone </li></ul><ul><li>Taffy was a...
The other languages… A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
2. Scottish nationalism <ul><li>Legacies of full nationhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education...
A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
National heroes… A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
3. Welsh nationalism <ul><li>Never achieved nationhood </li></ul><ul><li>Language as symbol and vehicle of nationalism </l...
<ul><li>Y Brawd Mawr </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
4. Irish nationalism <ul><li>Act of Union 1800 </li></ul><ul><li>Trauma of civil war, partition and sectarianism </li></ul...
5. English nationalism - a strange beast A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
<ul><li>[Britain is a nation of] long shadows on county cricket grounds, warm beer, invincible green suburbs, dog lovers a...
<ul><li>England – in search of an identity </li></ul><ul><li>Resurgence of flag of St. George </li></ul><ul><li>Resentment...
<ul><li>English nationalist movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English National ...
<ul><li>The Countryside Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>In England’s green and pleasant land… </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c...
<ul><li>An English Parliament? </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Parliaments? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Referendum 2004 on Regional A...
D. Towards devolution <ul><li>Devolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the partial transfer of powers from central to legislative ...
<ul><li>Kilbrandon Report 1973 recommended: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>legislative assemblies in Scotland and Wales </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Home rule movement spread under Thatcher </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland and Wales increasingly left-wing </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Labour commitment to decentralisation </li></ul><ul><li>” New Labour” devolution promise </li></ul><ul><li>1997 - ...
<ul><li>Referenda 1997 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scotland 71% for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wales 50.3% for </li></ul></ul><u...
The mainland nationalist parties <ul><li>Scottish National Party  </li></ul><ul><li>Plaid Cymru </li></ul>A Disunited King...
Recent SNP performances <ul><li>General election 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17.7% of Scottish vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Recent Plaid Cymru performances <ul><li>General Election 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12.6% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 sea...
Northern Ireland -devolution in sectarian society  <ul><li>Referendum 1973 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>98.9% for Union! </li></u...
Nationalist support in Northern Ireland Assembly 2007 <ul><li>Sinn Fein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>26.2% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
New Britons <ul><li>To talk of Britain as a country of four nations “immediately excludes all of us, because those four na...
E. From devolution to dissolution? <ul><li>The UK never was a nation state </li></ul><ul><li>Parallels to USSR, Yugoslavia...
A change in climate… <ul><li>Don't talk about &quot;the nation&quot; when you mean &quot;the UK&quot;… We broadcast to an ...
Two scenarios… <ul><li>Devolution will take the steam out of separatism </li></ul><ul><li>” The slippery slope” – we will ...
What do the polls say? <ul><ul><li>1998 62% of Scots thought Scotland would be independent in 15 years </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Should there be an English parliament <ul><ul><li>61% Yes (English voters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>51% Yes (Scottish vo...
<ul><li>David Cameron:  &quot;The last thing we need is yet another parliament with separate elections and more politician...
A word from our leader… <ul><li>We should remember that from 1707, the Union was founded not just on the respect for diver...
<ul><li>The new role of nation states in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish example </li></ul><ul><li>The future of Northe...
Tricky questions for a post-Union Britain: <ul><ul><li>Britain’s seat on UN Security Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Th...
The end of the UK – So what? <ul><li>We all have multiple identities </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed nationality more common </li>...
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Kopi Av 2 Version Disunited Kingdom

  1. 1. The Disunited Kingdom Is the United Kingdom past its sell-by date? Lecture by Richard Burgess A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  2. 2. <ul><li>I belong to the group of historical colleagues who hold that the United Kingdom was established to serve the interests of Empire and that the loss of Empire has destroyed its raison d’être. </li></ul><ul><li>The Isles: A History by Norman Davies </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  3. 3. A selection of book titles from around 2000 <ul><li>The Death of Britain by John Redwood </li></ul><ul><li>The Abolition of Britain by Peter Hitchens </li></ul><ul><li>The Day Britain Died by Andrew Marr </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  4. 4. ” Rule Britannia” <ul><li>Words written by a Scot </li></ul><ul><li>James Thomson (1700-1748) </li></ul><ul><li>First performed in 1740 as part of a ”masque” about Alfred the Great </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  5. 5. When was Britain born? A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess 1603? 1707? 1746? 1922?
  6. 6. A. What was the glue that kept the Union together? A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  7. 7. 1. Protestantism <ul><ul><li>The Church of England (the Anglican Church) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Church of Scotland (the Kirk) </li></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  8. 8. ” The Papist Threat” A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  9. 9. Also a real threat <ul><li>Jacobite plots, uprisings and invasions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1708 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1715 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1718 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1720 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1743 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1745 </li></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  10. 10. A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  11. 11. 2. A foreign monarchy <ul><li>the House of Hanover </li></ul><ul><li>the House of Saxe-Coburg </li></ul><ul><li>the House of Windsor </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  12. 12. <ul><li>HRH Michael James Alexander Stewart of Albany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a.k.a. Michel Roger Lafosse from Belgium </li></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  13. 13. A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  14. 14. 3. Britain – the beleaguered island <ul><li>France – a defining factor for British identity! </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  15. 15. The ever-changing French threat… A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  16. 16. <ul><li>” The sea and the chalk cliffs are Britain’s best allies” </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Salisbury 1888 </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  17. 17. 4. The Empire A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  18. 18. Empire – the Union’s raison d’être <ul><li>Pre-union England – ”heretics and plunderers” (Andrew Marr) </li></ul><ul><li>England’s empire –Ireland and toehold in the New World </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland’s empire – the failed Darièn project in Panama </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  19. 19. A British, not an English Empire A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess Thomas Cochrane: The real-life ”Hornblower” - a Scot David Livingstone: Missionary and explorer - A Scot Thomas Brisbane: Colonial Governor – A Scot
  20. 20. The British Army and Navy <ul><li>Fighting distant natives and European neighbours </li></ul><ul><li>Essential bearer of British identity </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  21. 21. B. When the spell stops working… A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  22. 22. ” Britishness” in retreat <ul><li>Increasing American influence worldwide, but also in Britain itself </li></ul><ul><li>The decline of ”King’s/Queen’s English”, the dominant dialect of Empire </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  23. 23. <ul><li>Protestantism losing its hold.. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multifaith society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing secularism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic church with largest attendance </li></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  24. 24. <ul><li>” Whiteness” in retreat </li></ul><ul><li>British institutions undermined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British Rail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British Leyland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal Mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BBC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal Industry </li></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  25. 25. A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess The Monarchy in Decline
  26. 26. The European Union <ul><ul><li>Cooperation rather than competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fostering regionalism rather than nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Euro? </li></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  27. 27. <ul><li>The Channel Tunnel terminal at Folkestone </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  28. 28. C. The resurgence of nationalism A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  29. 29. 1. The Dark Ages Still Matter A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess Loegr = England lit. ”the lost lands”
  30. 30. Our ancient prejudices <ul><li>Sassanach = Saxon </li></ul><ul><li>To welsh/welch on someone </li></ul><ul><li>Taffy was a Welshman, Taffy was a thief; Taffy came to my house And stole a piece of beef. </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  31. 31. The other languages… A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  32. 32. A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  33. 33. 2. Scottish nationalism <ul><li>Legacies of full nationhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bank </li></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  34. 34. A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  35. 35. National heroes… A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  36. 36. 3. Welsh nationalism <ul><li>Never achieved nationhood </li></ul><ul><li>Language as symbol and vehicle of nationalism </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  37. 37. <ul><li>Y Brawd Mawr </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  38. 38. 4. Irish nationalism <ul><li>Act of Union 1800 </li></ul><ul><li>Trauma of civil war, partition and sectarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Ulster Unionism – the last bastion of ”Britishness” </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  39. 39. 5. English nationalism - a strange beast A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  40. 40. <ul><li>[Britain is a nation of] long shadows on county cricket grounds, warm beer, invincible green suburbs, dog lovers and - as George Orwell said - old maids bicycling to Holy Communion through the morning mist. John Major </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  41. 41. <ul><li>England – in search of an identity </li></ul><ul><li>Resurgence of flag of St. George </li></ul><ul><li>Resentment of Scottish ”greed” </li></ul><ul><li>” West Lothian question” </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  42. 42. <ul><li>English nationalist movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English National Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(UKIP) </li></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  43. 43. <ul><li>The Countryside Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>In England’s green and pleasant land… </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  44. 44. <ul><li>An English Parliament? </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Parliaments? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Referendum 2004 on Regional Assembly for North East England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turnout 48% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>77.9% against </li></ul></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  45. 45. D. Towards devolution <ul><li>Devolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the partial transfer of powers from central to legislative and executive organs in the regions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Norman Davies ”The Isles” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  46. 46. <ul><li>Kilbrandon Report 1973 recommended: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>legislative assemblies in Scotland and Wales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>referenda </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Referenda 1979: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scotland 33% in favour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wales 12% in favour </li></ul></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  47. 47. <ul><li>Home rule movement spread under Thatcher </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland and Wales increasingly left-wing </li></ul><ul><li>Tory policies hit Wales and Scotland hard </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  48. 48. <ul><li>Labour commitment to decentralisation </li></ul><ul><li>” New Labour” devolution promise </li></ul><ul><li>1997 - All Tory MPs lost their seats in Scotland and Wales </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  49. 49. <ul><li>Referenda 1997 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scotland 71% for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wales 50.3% for </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scottish Parliament at Holyrood, Edinburgh </li></ul><ul><li>Welsh Assembly in Cardiff </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  50. 50. The mainland nationalist parties <ul><li>Scottish National Party </li></ul><ul><li>Plaid Cymru </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess Alex Salmond Dafydd Wigley
  51. 51. Recent SNP performances <ul><li>General election 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17.7% of Scottish vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 seats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scottish Parliament election 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32.9% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>47 seats (out of 129) </li></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  52. 52. Recent Plaid Cymru performances <ul><li>General Election 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12.6% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 seats (out of 40 Welsh seats) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Welsh Assembly election 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>22.4% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 seats (out of 60) </li></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  53. 53. Northern Ireland -devolution in sectarian society <ul><li>Referendum 1973 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>98.9% for Union! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Referendum 1998 on Good Friday agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>71.1% for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28.9% against a power-sharing executive </li></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  54. 54. Nationalist support in Northern Ireland Assembly 2007 <ul><li>Sinn Fein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>26.2% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28 seats in assembly (of 108) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 posts in Executive (of 12) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SDLP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15.2% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 seats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 post in Executive </li></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  55. 55. New Britons <ul><li>To talk of Britain as a country of four nations “immediately excludes all of us, because those four nations have a particular history, a particular ethnicity, which doesn’t include us”. Yasmin Alibhai Brown </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  56. 56. E. From devolution to dissolution? <ul><li>The UK never was a nation state </li></ul><ul><li>Parallels to USSR, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia? </li></ul><ul><li>“ In those states where the imperial nation loses the citizens’ trust, the popular nations will revive, turn militant and restore their sovereign status.” Norman Davies: The Isles </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  57. 57. A change in climate… <ul><li>Don't talk about &quot;the nation&quot; when you mean &quot;the UK&quot;… We broadcast to an audience in the nations of England, Scotland and Wales… It is better that programmes which are broadcast throughout the United Kingdom talk about things happening “across the United Kingdom” or “UK-wide”. The Changing UK, BBC, 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Revealed: the nation that dare not speak its name.” Sunday Times </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  58. 58. Two scenarios… <ul><li>Devolution will take the steam out of separatism </li></ul><ul><li>” The slippery slope” – we will ”slide” into a break-up of the Union. </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  59. 59. What do the polls say? <ul><ul><li>1998 62% of Scots thought Scotland would be independent in 15 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2007 ”Would you approve of Scotland becoming an independent country?” 51% Yes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>” Would you like the Union to come to an end?” 32% </li></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  60. 60. Should there be an English parliament <ul><ul><li>61% Yes (English voters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>51% Yes (Scottish voters) </li></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  61. 61. <ul><li>David Cameron: &quot;The last thing we need is yet another parliament with separate elections and more politicians spending more money.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Alex Salmond: &quot;In England, people quite rightly resent Scottish Labour MPs bossing them about on English domestic legislation. England has as much right to self government as Scotland does.&quot; </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  62. 62. A word from our leader… <ul><li>We should remember that from 1707, the Union was founded not just on the respect for diversity that devolution recognises, but also on institutions that brought us together, from – at root – a shared monarchy, Parliament and Armed Forces to, more recently, institutions as wide ranging as the NHS, the BBC and the UK-wide pooling of pensions and unemployment risk through National Insurance. </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  63. 63. <ul><li>The new role of nation states in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish example </li></ul><ul><li>The future of Northern Ireland </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  64. 64. Tricky questions for a post-Union Britain: <ul><ul><li>Britain’s seat on UN Security Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The British nuclear deterrent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is Scottish, Welsh etc? </li></ul></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
  65. 65. The end of the UK – So what? <ul><li>We all have multiple identities </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed nationality more common </li></ul><ul><li>Personally speaking… </li></ul>A Disunited Kingdom? (c) Richard Burgess
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