MOTIVATINGMotivating - refers to the "act of giving employees reasons or incentives... to work to achive organizational objectiveson the other hand...Motivation-refers to the process of activating behavior sustaining it,and directing toward a particular goal
Factors Contributing to MotivationWillingness to do a job. - People who like what they are doing are higly motivated to produce the expected output.Self-confidence in Carrying Out a Task. - When employees feel that they have the required skill and training to perform a task, the motivated they become.Needs Satisfaction - People will do their jobs well if they feel that by doing so, their needs will be satisfied.
Theories of Motivation• Maslows Needs Hierarchy Theory• Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory• Expectancy Theory• Goal Setting Theory
Theories of MotivationMaslows Needs Hierarchy TheoryAbraham Maslow, a psychologist, theorized that human beings have five basic needs which are as follows: – physiological – security – social – esteem – self-actualization
Maslow’s Heirarchy of Needs
Theories of MotivationHerzbergs Two-Factor Theory• Also called as Herzbergs Motivation-Hygeine Theory• Developed by Frederick Herzberg• He indicated that a satisfied employee is motivated from within to work harder and that a dissatisfied employee is not self motivated
Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory• Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors: Hygiene factors extrinsic ( job environment) factors that create job dissatisfaction. Motivators intrinsic (psychological factors/job content) factors that create job satisfaction.
Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory
Theories of MotivationExpectancy Theory• Victor H. Vroom is the author of this theory• States that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.• Key to the theory is understanding and managing employee goals and the linkages among and between effort, performance and rewards. Effort: employee abilities and training/development Performance: valid appraisal systems Rewards (goals): understanding employee needs
Expectancy TheoryExpectancy Relationships• Expectancy (effort-performance linkage) - The perceived probability that an individual’s effort will result in a certain level of performance.• Instrumentality - The perception that a particular level of performance will result in the attaining a desired outcome (reward).• Valence - The attractiveness/importance of the performance reward (outcome) to the individual.
Expectancy TheoryExpectancy Theory is based on the following assumptions:• A combination of forces within the individual and in the environment determines behavior.• People make decisions about their own behavior and that of organizations.• People have different types of needs, goals, and desires.• People make choices among alternative behavior based on the extent to which they think a certain will lead a desired outcome.
Simplified Expectancy Model
Theories of MotivationGoal Setting Theory • Goal setting refers to the process of "improving performance with objectives, deadlines or quality standard.“
Goal Setting Theory• The goal setting model drawn by Edward Locke and his associates consists of the following components: Goal Content – To be sufficient in content, goal must be challenging, attainable, specific and measurable, time limited, and relevant. Goal Commitment – When individuals or groups are committed to the goals they are supposed to achieve, there is a chance that they will be able to achieve them.work behavior Work Behavior – Goals influence behavior in terms of direction, effort, persistence, and planning. Feedback Aspects – Feedback provides the individuals with a way of knowing how far they have gone in achieving objectives. Feedback also facilitates the introduction of corrective measures whenever they are found to be necessary.
Techniques of Motivation• Motivation Through Job Design• Motivation Through Rewards• Motivation Through Employee Participation• Other Motivation Techniques
Techniques of MotivationMotivation Through Job Design• Job Design specifying the tasks that constitute a job for an individual or a group• Approaches of Motivation Through Job Design Fitting People to Jobs Fitting Jobs to People
Fitting People to Jobs• Realistic job previews- where management provides honest explanations of what a job actually entails• Job Rotation- where people are moved periodically from one specialized job to another• Limited exposure- where a workers exposure to a highly fragmented and tedious job is limited
Fitting Jobs to People• Job enlargement- where two or more especialized tasks in a work flow sequence is combined into a single job• Job enrichment- where efforts are made to make jobs more interesting, challenging, and rewarding
Techniques of MotivationMotivation Through Rewards Rewards consist of material and psychological benefits to employees for performing tasks in the workplace. Two Categories of Rewards Extrinsic - those which refer to payoffs granted to the individual by another party. Examples are money, employee benefits, promotions, recognition, status symbols, praise, etc. Intrinsic - those which are internally experienced payoffs which are self granted. Examples are a sense of accomplishment, self esteem and self actualization.
Motivation Through RewardsManagement of Extrinsic Rewards To motivate job performance effectively, extrinsic rewardsmust be properly managed in line with the following: it must satisfy individual needs; the employees must believe effort will lead to reward; rewards must be equitable; rewards must be linked to performance
Techniques of MotivationMotivation Through Employee Participation The specific activities identified where employees mayparticipate are as follows: setting goals making decisions solving problems, and designing and implementing organizational changes
Motivation Through Employee ParticipationThe more popular approaches to participation includes thefollowing:• Quality Control Circles (QCC) method of direct employee participation the objective of the QCC is to increase productivity and quality of output the circle consists of "a group of three to ten employees usually doing realted work, who met at regular intervals (once a week for an hour, for example) to identify problems and discuss their solutions." the circle icludes "a leader such as a foreman, but rely on democratic processes."
Motivation Through Employee Participation• Self-managed Teams when workers have reached a certain degree of discipline, they may be ripe for forming self-managed teams. also knowns as autonomous work groups or high performance teams, self-managed teams take on traditional managerial tasks as part of their normal work routine
The Quality Control Circle Process Quality circle Quality circle members members prepare brainstorm, gather solutions and data, and establish recommendations cause and effect. Results are measured Management and feedback, considers quality recognition and circle rewards given to recommendations quality control circle and makes decisions. members.
Motivation Through Employee ParticipationRequisites to Succesful Employee Participation Program To succeed, an employee participation program will requirethe following: a profit-sharing or gain sharing plan a long-term employment employment relationship with good job security a concerted effort to build and maintain group cohesiveness protection of the individual employees rights
Techniques of Motivation• Other Motivation Techniques1. Flexible Work Schedules there is an arrangement, called flextime, which allows employees to determine their own arrival and departure times within specified limits.2. Family Support Services employees are oftentimes burdened by family obligations like caring for children progressive companies provide day care facilities for children of employees
Other Motivation Techniques3. Sabbaticals a sabbatical leave is one to an employee after a certain number of years of service the employee is allowed to go on leave for two months to one year with pay to give him time for family, recreations, and travel