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Covers Unit I of MBA UoM Syllabus

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  • Why MIS

    1. 1. Information Systems <ul><li>Why Do People Need Information? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals - Entertainment and enlightenment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Businesses - Decision making, problem solving and control </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Data, Information, and Systems <ul><li>Data vs. Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A “given,” or fact; a number, a statement, or a picture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represents something in the real world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The raw materials in the production of information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data that have meaning within a context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data in relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data after manipulation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Data, Information, and Systems <ul><li>Data Manipulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: customer survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading through data collected from a customer survey with questions in various categories would be time-consuming and not very helpful. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When manipulated, the surveys may provide useful information. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Data, Information, and Systems <ul><li>Generating Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer-based ISs take data as raw material, process it, and produce information as output. </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.1 Input-process-output
    5. 5. Data, Information, and Systems <ul><li>Information in Context </li></ul>Figure 1.2 Characteristics of useful information
    6. 6. Data, Information, and Systems <ul><li>What Is a System? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System: A set of components that work together to achieve a common goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsystem: One part of a system where the products of more than one system are combined to reach an ultimate goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed system: Stand-alone system that has no contact with other systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open system: System that interfaces with other systems </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Data, Information, and Systems Figure 1.3 Several subsystems make up this corporate accounting system.
    8. 8. Data, Information, and Systems <ul><li>Information and Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a framework for problem solving and decision making. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps managers focused on overall goals and operations of business. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Data, Information, and Systems Figure 1.5 Qualities of humans and computers that contribute to synergy
    10. 10. Data, Information, and Systems <ul><li>The Benefits of Human-Computer Synergy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When combined resources produce output that exceeds the sum of the outputs of the same resources employed separately </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows human thought to be translated into efficient processing of large amounts of data </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Data, Information, and Systems Figure 1.6 Components of an information system
    12. 12. Data, Information, and Systems <ul><li>The Four Stages of Data Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input: Data is collected and entered into computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data processing: Data is manipulated into information using mathematical, statistical, and other tools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output: Information is displayed or presented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage: Data and information are maintained for later use. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Why Study IS? <ul><li>Information Systems Careers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analyst, specialist in enterprise resource planning (ERP), database administrator, telecommunications specialist, consulting, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers and non-managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employers seek computer-literate professionals who know how to use information technology. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer Literacy Replacing Traditional Literacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key to full participation in western society </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Ethical and Societal Issues The Not-So-Bright Side <ul><li>Consumer Privacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations collect (and sometimes sell) huge amounts of data on individuals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employee Privacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT supports remote monitoring of employees, violating privacy and creating stress. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Ethical and Societal Issues The Not-So-Bright Side <ul><li>Freedom of Speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT increases opportunities for pornography, hate speech, intellectual property crime, an d other intrusions; prevention may abridge free speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IT Professionalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No mandatory or enforced code of ethics for IT professionals--unlike other professions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Inequality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 20% of the world’s population have ever used a PC; less than 3% have Internet access. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Management of IS <ul><li>How do business organize themselves to manage IS and IT activities? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends upon the type of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends upon the size of the business </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. What Needs to be Managed? <ul><li>Procurement activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of hardware, software and services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deployment or implementation activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we get this stuff working within the business? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping everything running as the business evolves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware, software, databases, web presence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup and continuity planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security and audits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster response </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Organizational Objectives <ul><li>Cost effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firms that spend too much on IT become uncompetitive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is IT organization able to respond quickly and appropriately to business needs? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality and Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the IT organization competent? Do they get the job done? </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Organizational Models <ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very small organizations don’t have any formal IT function – “a guy” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations have from 1 to thousand’s of employees dedicated to IT </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Formal Organization Models <ul><li>Decentralized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT employees report to business unit or department, not to a central, corporate organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centralized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees report to a central organization </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Pros and Cons of Decentralization <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsiveness to local business unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Close proximity = easy communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little bureaucracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Familiarity with business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling of ownership and belonging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will tend to be reactive rather than strategic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small size will make skill development and training more difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of management expertise and professionalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will result in less efficiency for entire enterprise </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Pros and Cons of Centralization <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost savings through standardization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procurement cost savings due to volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training efficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater career opportunities with enhance attractiveness as a place to work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow and bureaucratic (perceived to be) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of touch with real business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost accounting and charge back requirements </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Current Large Business Trends <ul><li>Centralize and standardize procurement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centralize web management and standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But perhaps not development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centralize management of support of office systems </li></ul><ul><li>Dual reporting for business application development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate and business unit </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Careers in MIS
    25. 25. What is Management Information Systems (MIS)? <ul><li>What is MIS, based on what you’ve learned so far? </li></ul><ul><li>Definition by the Association for Information Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The use of information technology to improve organizational performance and individual quality of work life” </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. What do MIS people do? <ul><li>Database administrator and data analyst </li></ul><ul><li>Computer programmer </li></ul><ul><li>Webmaster </li></ul><ul><li>Senior technical executive </li></ul><ul><li>Business technologist </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic commerce expert </li></ul><ul><li>Data security manager </li></ul><ul><li>Internet applications engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Help Desk support </li></ul><ul><li>Software engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Information systems business consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneur </li></ul><ul><li>Technical sales person </li></ul>
    27. 27. Who hires MIS people? <ul><li>Information technology consulting firms </li></ul><ul><li>Information technology units throughout the private and public sectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone needs MIS! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-employed </li></ul>
    28. 28. Careers In Information Systems <ul><li>Software Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business or C.S. background </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Database Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design business solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project and program managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage people, decisions, contracts, schedules </li></ul></ul>