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Rm6 research strategy

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  • 1. Part Two THE DESIGN OF RESEARCH6-1
  • 2. Chapter Six DESIGN STRATEGIES6-2
  • 3. What is Research Design? • A plan for selecting the sources and types of information used to answer research questions • A framework for specifying the relationships among the study variables • A blueprint that outlines each procedure from the hypothesis to the analysis6-3
  • 4. Classifications of Designs • Exploratory study is usually to develop hypotheses or questions for further research • Formal study is to test the hypotheses or answer the research questions posed6-4
  • 5. Methods of Data Collection • Monitoring, which includes observational studies • Interrogation/communication studies6-5
  • 6. Power to Produce Effects • In an experiment, the researcher attempts to control and/or manipulate the variables in the study • In an ex post facto design, the researcher has no control over the variables; they can only report what has happened6-6
  • 7. Purpose of the Study • Descriptive study tries to explain relationships among variables • Causal study is how one variable produces changes in another6-7
  • 8. The Time Dimension • Cross-sectional studies are carried out once and represent a snapshot of one point in time • Longitudinal studies are repeated over an extended period6-8
  • 9. The Topical Scope • Statistical studies attempt to capture a population’s characteristics by making inferences from a sample’s characteristics • Case studies place more emphasis on a full contextual analysis of fewer events or conditions and their interrelations6-9
  • 10. The Research Environment • Field conditions • Laboratory conditions • Simulations6-10
  • 11. A Participant’s Perceptions • Usefulness of a design may be reduced when people in the study perceive that research is being conducted • Participants’ perceptions influence the outcomes of the research6-11
  • 12. Why do Exploratory Studies? • Exploration is particularly useful when researchers lack a clear idea of the problems6-12
  • 13. Data Collection Techniques • Qualitative techniques • Secondary data • Focus groups • Two-stage design6-13
  • 14. Causation • The essential element of causation is – A “produces” B or – A “forces” B to occur6-14
  • 15. Causal Study Relationships • Symmetrical • Reciprocal • Asymmetrical6-15
  • 16. Asymmetrical Relationships • Stimulus-Response • Property-Disposition • Disposition-Behavior • Property-Behavior6-16
  • 17. Achieving the Ideal Experimental Design • Control – Random Assignment – Matching • Randomization – Manipulation and control of variables6-17