Keen, P. G. W. (1991) Relevance and Rigor in Information Systems Research: Improving Quality, Confidence, Cohesion and Impact. In Nisson, H.-E. et al. (eds), Information Systems Research: Contemporary Approaches and Emergent Traditions, pp. 27-49. Elsevier Science Publishers.
At time t0, the need for a system is recognised and development commences, with relatively incomplete knowledge of the real user needs at that time. By t1, an operational system has been produced, but not only does it fail to satisfy user needs at t1, it fails even to satisfy needs as specified at t0. The system is then subjected to a series of maintenance enhancements between t1 and t3, which enable it to satisfy the original needs (at t2). At time t3, the cost of reworking the system is so great that it is decided to rebuild from scratch. This redevelopment is complete by t4, and the cycle recommences. Davis, A.M., Bersoff, E. H. & Comer, E. R. (1988) A Strategy for Comparing Alternative Software Development Lifecycle Models, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering , 14(10) October Xeno’s Paradox: the tortoise is given a significant headstart; once the hare has covered the initial distance that separated him from the tortoise, the tortoise is no longer there and has moved a little further; again, once the hare covers that marginal distance, the tortoise has moved a little further still, so how does he ever catch the tortoise ? (easily dispelled by Newton’s Laws of Motion)
Motwani, J., Subramanian, R. & Gopalakrishna, P. (2005) Critical factors for successful ERP implementation: Exploratory findings from four case studies. Computers in Industry. 56(6), 529-544.
Finney, S. & Corbett, M. (2007) ERP implementation: a compilation and analysis of critical success factors. Business Process Management Journal. 13(3), 329-347.
“ In nearly every software project that fails to meet performance and cost goals, requirements inadequacies play a major and expensive role in project failure” (Alford & Lawson, 1979)
“ The hardest single part of building a software system is deciding precisely what to build. No other part of the conceptual work is as difficult as establishing the detailed technical requirements ... No other part of the work so cripples the resulting system if done wrong.” (Brooks, 1987)
Build the correct system (product) + Build the system correctly (process)
Playing Catch-up with User Needs FUNCTIONALITY TIME User Needs Actual System Capabilities t 0 t 1 t 3 t 2 t 5 t 4