How do you process the data from transactions and integrate the operations of the organization?
How do you efficiently collect transaction data?
What are the major elements and risks of a transaction?
Why are transactions more difficult in an international environment?
How do you track and compare the financial information of a firm?
What are the transaction elements in the human resources management system?
Can a company become more efficient and productive?
How do businesses combine data from operations?
How do you combine data across functional areas, including production, purchasing, marketing, and accounting?
How do you make production more efficient?
How do you keep track of all customer interactions? Who are your best customers?
How can a manager handle all of the data in an ERP system?
How does the CEO know that financial records are correct?
Transactions and Integration Central Computer Sales Reports POS Cash Registers Customers EDI Supplier Bank Process Control Additional Stores Strategy Tactics Operations Warehouse Inventory Management CEO Information
Data Capture Collecting transaction data at the point of sale ensures accurate data, speeds transactions, and provides up-to-the-minute data to managers. Sales Process Control Banking and Finance Workers
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Scanner from: http://www.rfidinc.com C antenna Capacitor: collected energy Transistors: data RFID tag RFID reader Radio/microwaves Data: Alter the waves B E
Process Control Various Production machines: lathe, press, dryer, . .. Control Terminal Production data: Quantity Quality Time Machine status Control settings and commands
EDI: Proprietary Supplier Customer 1 Queries & Orders Invoices & confirmation Order Database & Accounts Customer 2 Firms must support multiple data formats and sometimes different computers for each contact. Production Database & Accounts Convert Convert
EDI: Standards Supplier Customer 1 Production Database & Accounts Order Database & Accounts Customer 2 Bank/EDI consolidator Convert to Standard Route Messages Messages to/from any customer Convert to Standard Convert to Standard
Date & Time Value Item Buyer Seller Item_Id Description Location . . . Transactions Items Buyer_Id Address Phone Seller_Id Address Phone Buyers Sellers
Transaction Risks payment products or services Vendor Customer Government 1. Receive payment. 2. Legitimate payment. 3. Customer not repudiate sale. 4. Government not invalidate sale. 1. Receive product. 2. Charged only as agreed. 3. Seller not repudiate sale. 4. Legal transaction. 1. Transaction record. 2. Tax records. 3. Identify fraud. 4. Track money for other cases (drugs). Credit card company accepts risks for a fee.
Keys generated by certificate authority (e.g., Verisign).
Security on individual servers is the responsibility of vendor.
There have been some thefts of data (e.g., credit-card numbers.)
Vendor is motivated to secure the server.
Commercial software exists to provide secure sites.
Is the vendor legitimate?
Consider: Internet gambling.
What if offshore vendor refuses to pay off a bet?
As long as Internet gambling is illegal (in the U.S.) consumer has no recourse.
Otherwise, use credit cards and rely on banks.
Is the customer legitimate?
Rely on credit card data.
Some vendors will ship only to billing address.
International Transaction Issues http:// worldwind.arc.nasa.gov Shipping Currencies Languages Customs and tariffs Jurisdiction for disputes Different laws and systems Verify seller and purchaser Payment methods
Journal entries—double entry: money and categories
General ledger—summary data by categories
Information is defined by the chart of accounts
Purchases, Sales, Loans, and Investments
Process and Controls
Separation of Duties
Human Resources Management Management Managers Employees Customers Government Process Payroll Benefits Vacation Compile Merit Evaluations & Salary Changes Job Applicants Produce Management Employee Reports Screen Jobs & Applications Produce Government Reports Employee Data Files Employee Data Evaluations Salary Merit & Salary Sales Data & Commission Employee Data Merit Applicant Data Employee Summaries Job & Applicant Data EEO Data Government Reports Management Reports
Production Management Production Information System Purchase Orders Customer Order Shipping Receiving Production and Assembly Quality Quality Quality Suppliers Customers Bill of Materials Crank UL6500 Pedals LK3500 Stem UL6600 Saddle Selle …
Production Management Issues factories Customers or stores Multiple factories produce many items that need to be distributed to multiple stores. How do you schedule efficient production? How do you ensure the right products go to the right locations? Ask Gitano Jeans in the 1980s
Distribution Center Factories Customer or stores Split the mass production shipments into smaller units and distribute to stores immediately—without holding inventory. Need to match orders exactly, and carefully schedule arrival time of shipments.
1960s & 1970s MIS Pieces Purchasing: Orders Sales: Orders Production: MRP Marketing: Forecasts Accounting: Integrated Data Separate Reports
Changes weekly reports 1970s Sales Terminals Sales Terminals Central computer: create reports Manager: Integrate, graph analyze Secretary: type & revise Management weekly reports 1980s Sales Terminals Sales Terminals Central computer: create reports Manager: Integrate, graph analyze Management personal computer 1990s Sales Terminals Sales Terminals DBMS: On-line data Personal Computer Weekly reports & ad hoc queries (applications) Management query data sales data 3 reports (printed) sales data 3 reports (printed) sales data
Integration in 2000s Sales Terminals Sales Terminals DBMS Executive Information System Personal Computer Or PDA Or Browser Management query data Suppliers Banks Production/ Service Enterprise Resource Planning sales data
ERP Integration Database Headquarters (England) Database Subsidiary (Spain) Financial data General ledger Payroll … Manufacturing Product details Inventory … Use inventory item. Deduct quantity. Update inventory value. Check for reorder point. Order new item through EDI. Update Accounts payable. Project cost report. Daily production report. Weekly financial status. Cash flow. Budget versus actual cost.
EIS Software from Lightship highlights ease- of-use GUI for data look-up.
Executive IS Production Distribution Sales Central Management Executives Data Data Sales Production Costs Distribution Costs Fixed Costs Production Costs South North Overseas Production: North Item# 1995 1994 1234 542.1 442.3 2938 631.3 153.5 7319 753.1 623.8 Data for EIS Data Data
Audits and Sarbanes-Oxley Financial Statements Bank Cash Inventory Sales Customer Inventory Some financial numbers are tied to the outside world. Validate these to anchor the statements.
Technology Toolbox: Selecting an ERP System Customize applications, convert data, restructure company operations, define new processes and train employees. Implementation Product demonstrations, ratings, and site visits. Demos and Selection Identify business requirements. Detailed list of specifications, unit goals, and critical features. Evaluation criteria. Requirements Gathering Initial vendor list and basic features (hardware platform, fees, internationalization, vendor size and stability, industry-specific support and so on.) Initial Planning Estimate costs, establish objectives, select team Initiation Goals and Outputs Planning Stage
Quick Quiz: Selecting an ERP System 1. Assume you work for a mid-size construction firm that does about 30 percent of its work internationally. Find at least three ERP vendors and outline the features they provide. 2. Assume you work for a large retail clothing firm with stores in most U.S. states. Identify the specific accounting and financial features you would want in an ERP system. 3. Assume you work for a regional manufacturer that makes parts for cars. Explain how you would select and evaluate an ERP system. Find an example of a system that would work.