Ryu 1Investing in Karnataka’s Jackfruit: A Profitable ProposalAbstractJackfruit is an indigenous, superabundant resource in Karnataka, but currently, 75% of itis simply wasted. This wastage represents enormous lost opportunity for financial profit and foodsecurity. The national and international contexts for jackfruit imminently indicate that now is thetime for Karnataka to invest in developing a commercial jackfruit industry. Case studies of thesuccessful commercialization of the potato, pomegranate, and pineapple provide valuableinsights: the successful commercialization of the jackfruit requires the research and identificationof the top jackfruit varieties, development of jackfruit-specific processing technologies, andstrategic marketing of jackfruit and its products. Hawaii, Sri Lanka, Maharashtra, and Keralabear precedents for the implementation of these activities. Karnataka should establish a JackfruitInstitute and Jackfruit Processing Centers to usher in a bright future for jackfruit and forKarnataka.IntroductionThis policy proposal argues that the Karnataka State Horticulture Department/Mission1should fund jackfruit research and the establishment of jackfruit processing centers to develop acommercial jackfruit industry in Karnataka, India. This proposal explains why a commercialjackfruit industry should be developed in Karnataka and then explains how, leveraging evidencefrom case studies of the potato, pineapple, and pomegranate and from precedents for jackfruitresearch and industry development in Hawaii, Sri Lanka, Maharashtra, and Kerala. An appendixprovides photographs of Indian jackfruit products and entrepreneurs and a brief biography of theauthor.This policy proposal begins with explanation of the abundant opportunity for financialprofit and food security through the creation of a jackfruit industry. This proposal then discussesthe national and international context for the development of a jackfruit industry in Karnatakaand provides an evidence-based plan of action to create a thriving jackfruit industry inKarnataka.1This proposal will be sent separately to both the Karnataka State Horticulture Department and the Karnataka StateHorticulture Mission.
Ryu 2Enormous Opportunity: From Jackfruit Wastage to Financial Profit and Food SecurityJackfruit trees in Karnatakabear 235,000 metric tons of jackfruitannually (Department of Horticulture,Government of Karnataka 2009). Thejackfruit is the world’s largest tree-borne fruit, weighing up to fifty2kilograms (APAARI 2012). A typicaljackfruit tree yields 200 to 250 fruits,each weighing five to thirty-fivekilograms (Ghosh 1996). Indigenousto the rain forests of India’s WesternGhats (APAARI 2012), the jackfruitis an impressively abundant naturalresource of southern India. However,an estimated 75% of total productionis wasted (APAARI 2012),representing vast lost opportunity tostrengthen food security and theincomes of agricultural families.There are a variety of reasonsfor jackfruit wastage, including the2The largest jackfruit on record, however, reported in Panruti, Tamil Nadu, India, weighed eighty-one kilograms(APAARI 2012).Figure 1. A jackfruit tree, an agribusiness professor (left) andtwo entrepreneurs who recently began processing jackfruit.Figure 2. A jackfruit seed within a jackfruit bulb.
Ryu 3rapidity with which the fruit decomposes, the exceptional abundance of fruit from a single tree,the high expense of transporting the heavy fruits, and the sticky latex and strong smell of theinside of a fresh jackfruit. Jackfruit processing overcomes these reasons for wastage: processingnear the fruit source dramatically extends shelf-life, greatly reduces shipping cost,3andeliminates the potentially bothersome latex and smell from the ultimate consumer’s experience.The ripe bulbs of a jackfruit can be processed to produce dried jackfruit, pulp, juice,wine, ice cream, jelly, chips, pickles, and candies (see Appendix for photos). Unripe jackfruit hasmeat-like taste and texture and can be canned or dried for use as a “vegetable meat” in variousdishes. The seeds can be roasted like chestnuts or processed to produce chutney powder forseasoning or gluten-free flour for baking (APAARI 2012). These jackfruit products haveenormous potential to generate profits for producers. A study conducted by researchers at theUniversity of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, found that value-added jackfruit products wouldmultiply returns from jackfruit marketed fresh by 2.5 to 6 times (Munishamanna et al. 2007).Jackfruit has enormous potential to strengthen nutrition and food security, in addition toeconomic security (Vinayak 2012; Jackfruit Promotion Council 2012). Twenty-one percent ofIndia’s population as a whole is malnourished (Thomson 2012), but a single tree provides 2,000kilograms of jackfruit per year by a modest estimate (Ghosh 1996). The fruit bulbs are a strongsource of potassium, vitamin C, vitamin A, magnesium, and fiber (Swami et al. 2012). Phenoliccompounds, phytonutrients, antioxidants, and carotenoids also abound in jackfruit bulbs,providing them with anticancer, antihypertensive, and anti-aging properties, and the potential tohelp prevent various chronic diseases (Swami et al. 2012). The seeds, too, are a rich source ofstarch, protein, and phytonutrients (Hettiarachchi et al. 2011).3For example, dried jackfruit bulbs have 5% the weight of a whole fresh jackfruit, which includes the outer rind,inner fiber, seeds, and sticky latex in addition to the edible bulbs.
Ryu 4Jackfruit has already served for many years as a nutritious staple food for thousands offamilies with jackfruit trees (Jackfruit Promotion Council 2012; Shree Padre, personalcommunication, December 4, 2012). Today, urbanization, lifestyle changes, and low awarenessof fruit harvesting and processing strategies have contributed to fruit wastage, especially becauseextracting the edible bulbs and seeds from the sticky and fibrous inside of a jackfruit is a highlylabor-intensive process (Jackfruit Promotion Council 2012). Thus, if the fruits can be processedand distributed to prevent wastage at the source or in transport, jackfruit can contribute a greatdeal to India’s food security (Vinayak 2012; Jackfruit Promotion Council 2012). Because of thefruit’s extraordinary abundance and underutilization in southern India, the fruit is very unlikelyto become too expensive for local consumption in the foreseeable future, even as thedevelopment of a jackfruit industry connects supply to untapped markets (“Horticulture Mission”2010; Shree Padre, personal communication, December 10, 2012).No stable marketing chain has yet been established for fresh jackfruit and jackfruitproducts in India, however: most sales occur in villages and on the roadside (APAARI 2012).There are only a few commercial scale processing plants and about a dozen branded jackfruitproducts in India (APAARI 2012; Padre 2011a). These products include canned tender jackfruit,vacuum fried jackfruit chips, jackfruit papads, and jackfruit jam, among others, but do notencompass dehydrated jackfruit, jackfruit seed flour, or jackfruit “vegetable meat” products(Padre 2011a).This situation of marked underutilization is not specific to jackfruit, however. TheNational Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources focused its studies on sixteen “tropical underutilizedfruits” in 2010 but noted that India has 344 species of fruits that have vast potential for newcrops but are currently underutilized, growing in wild or semi-wild states (Malik et al. 2010). An
Ryu 5underutilized fruit to make the transition to a well commercialized fruit would contributevaluable lessons for the commercialization of other currently underutilized fruits.Thus, developing a jackfruit industry in Karnataka will contribute valuably to economicsecurity and food security in the short-term and will contribute even more in the long-term as itssuccesses inform the development of other fruit industries. Current national and internationalcircumstances for the jackfruit show that now is the time to launch Karnataka’s jackfruitindustry.The Time is Ripe: National and International ContextAlthough jackfruit is often perceived to be an inferior fruit, there is a large untappedmarket for jackfruit and its products in India and internationally (Brahmavar 2012; DH NewsService 2012; Padre 2011a). Impressive successes in jackfruit product sales evidence the marketpotential. Earlier this year, one processing unit initiated small-scale production of jackfruit toffeeand sold 5,000 in one month (Shree Padre, personal communication, September 12, 2012). Aprofessor who began farming in retirement sells 60,000 pieces of jackfruit toffee each yearwithout any publicity (Shree Padre, personal communication, September 14, 2012). TheKadamba Marketing Co-operative, a farmers’ cooperative based in Sirsi, Karnataka, recentlyinitiated commercial production of jackfruit papads and jackfruit chips and sold 60,000 papadsand 600 kilograms of chips last year (APAARI 2012; Brahmavar 2012). In addition, most of thejackfruit that reaches northern India is unripe jackfruit used for curry preparation: the market forfresh jackfruit and jackfruit’s diverse value-added products has yet to be served (Vinayak 2012).While demand for jackfruit in India alone exceeds supply capacity (Lal 2012), the fruit isbecoming increasingly popular in mainstream and ethnic markets in the US and UK as well as insome Asian and Middle Eastern countries (APAARI 2012). Notably, jackfruit is the most
Ryu 6expensive fruit on sale in Britain, priced at approximately 25 Euros, or Rs. 1638 (32.75 USD),per fruit (Haq 2006). Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Sri Lanka are ahead of India in terms ofjackfruit utilization and exports (“National Jackfruit Fete” 2011; Padre 2011; Haq 2006).Vietnam is the global leader in jackfruit products, with over twenty facilities producingjackfruit chips (Padre 2011a). Of these facilities, Vinamit Trading Corporation is the largest: itexports jackfruit chips to many countries, including the US, Russia, Germany, China, and Japan(Padre 2011a). In Vietnam, jackfruit yields greater profits for small farmers than rubber does(Padre 2011a). Thailand exports jackfruit products to the US and UK throughout the year (Haq2006). Malaysia also exports jackfruit to the UK market, and, even in 1995, Malaysia earned740,000 USD for exporting over 4,600 tons of fresh jackfruits to Singapore and Hongkong (Azad2000). Today, Malaysia’s Federal Agricultural Marketing Authority and the MalaysianAgricultural Research and Development Institute are promoting jackfruit processing, marketingin Malaysia, and exporting (Padre 2011a). Sri Lanka is very advanced in its jackfruit processingindustry: at least a dozen Sri Lankan companies produce jackfruit products for export (Padre2011a), and Sri Lanka has more than 200 processing units providing unripe and ripe jackfruitbulbs for the local market (Padre 2011b). Meanwhile, in India, only one company has thus farachieved scale in exporting jackfruit products, and this company produces only vacuum-driedjackfruit chips (APAARI 2012).The potential international market extends far beyond the supply capacities of existingcompanies (APAARI 2012), and developing local capacities for jackfruit harvesting, processing,and marketing will help ensure local benefit as international interest in jackfruit continues toincrease. Awareness of the types of jackfruit products possible remains low in India but has beengrowing gradually, especially because of jackfruit festivals: since 2006, these festivals in Kerala
Ryu 7and Karnataka have been occurring increasingly often, bringing jackfruit researchers, farmers,processors, entrepreneurs, and fanatics to celebrate the fruit and its product potential (Padre2006; “Jackfruit Movement” 2010). These festivals, as well as a variety of civil societyorganizations, have helped to develop local capacities for jackfruit commercialization, such thatan increasing number of entrepreneurs are initiating jackfruit processing (Shree Padre, personalcommunication, December 4, 2012; Jackfruit Promotion Council 2012).Yet, while Karnataka is the leader in jackfruit production (Padre 2009), the neighboringstate of Kerala is ahead of Karnataka in civil society and governmental efforts to promotejackfruit commercialization. In Kerala, jackfruit cultivators formed the Kanjirappuzha FarmClub, the Ruchi Farmers Network, and the Group Rural Agricultural Marketing Association(GRAMA) to promote jackfruit industry development in different regions (“Joining Hands”2012; “Farmers’ Organisations Call”; CARD-Krishi Vigyan Kendra 2011). Kerala has theJackfruit Promotion Council, which proclaims itself a “national platform” for jackfruit promotion(Jackfruit Promotion Council 2012), and the only Krishi Vigyan Kendra (CARD-Krishi VigyanKendra, Pathnamthitta) that has made significant contributions to jackfruit commercialization(Padre 2012b; Shree Padre, personal communication, December 4, 2012). The KeralaHorticulture Mission agreed to provide funding and technological support for jackfruitprocessing (“Horticulture Mission” 2010), and the Kerala Small Farmer’s AgribusinessConsortium (SFAC) recently committed to providing training and guidance for entrepreneursworking to initiate jackfruit processing (“Aid to Set Up” 2012).Meanwhile, the Karnataka State Horticulture Mission does not include the jackfruit in itslist of sixteen underutilized fruits of focus (Karnataka State Horticulture Mission n.d.); the
Ryu 8Karnataka State Horticulture Department did not include jackfruit in the minor fruit4promotionscheme it launched in 2010 (Chandrashekhar 2010); and Karnataka SFAC is inactive (ShreePadre, personal communication, December 4, 2012). Mangalore, Karnataka, has India’s largestjackfruit product exporting company, but the other company known to export jackfruit productsis based in Kottayam, Kerala, and the vast majority of jackfruit sent to northern Indian statescomes from Kerala (Padre 2011b).Evident national and international demand for jackfruit products, jackfruit festivals andpromotion efforts, and the greater advancement of other regions’ jackfruit industries stronglyindicate the pressing need for Karnataka to develop its jackfruit industry.Building Karnataka’s Jackfruit Industry: Action PlanIn order to maximize success in building a jackfruit industry, Karnataka should learnfrom historical examples of success in developing industries for new crops as well as fromongoing efforts to promote the breadfruit and jackfruit. This action plan illuminates the need fora jackfruit research institute and jackfruit processing centers in Karnataka and the steps toestablish these.The potato, pineapple, and pomegranate are informative historical case studies, as eachcrop overcame significant challenges in commercialization and was extremely successfullyintroduced to new environments. These examples illustrate the importance of researching,cultivating, and distributing the best varieties of a crop, of developing and utilizing crop-specificprocessing technologies, and of introducing and strategically marketing value-added products.The example of the potato is especially important for envisioning the potential trajectoryof the jackfruit. The potato originated and was first domesticated in the Andes Mountains of4“Minor fruit” means a fruit that is indigenous and underutilized.
Ryu 9South America (International Potato Center 2010). When the potato was initially introduced tovarious countries in Europe, the potato was perceived as strange and poisonous: in France, thepotato was accused of causing leprosy, syphilis, and other diseases (Stradley 2004). Theunattractive appearance and bland taste of the potato were major contributions to its poorreception (Zuckerman 1998; Reader 2011). But, over time, the potato gained appreciation for itsnutritional value and abundance and was incorporated into a wide variety of recipes (Zuckerman1998; Reader 2011). Today, the potato is the third most important food crop in the world, afterrice and wheat: over a billion people eat potato, and global potato production is over 300 millionmetric tons per year (International Potato Center 2010).Research and development of particular potato varieties and potato processing techniqueshave been crucial to the potato’s success. While there are nearly 4000 different varieties ofpotato, the potato has been bred into standard and well-known varieties with particularagricultural or culinary advantages (Roach 2002; Potato Council Ltd. 2009). The mechanicalpotato peeler and the wax paper bag, both invented in the 1920s, were vital to the successfulcommercialization of potatoes. Before these technologies were introduced, potatoes weretediously peeled and sliced by hand, and potato chips were dispensed from barrels or glassdisplay cases (Ament 2007). Herman Lay’s tactics as a traveling salesman then enabled Lay’spotato chips to become the first successfully marketed national brand in the US. Today, potatochip sales are over $6 billion annually in the US alone (Ament 2007). Similarly, potatoprocessing into French fries has been crucial to the potato’s popularity. In the US, fast foodchains, catering to consumers’ needs for reliable, affordable, and convenient food, popularizedfries by pairing them with burgers (Kiniry 2012). French fry sales surpassed regular potato salesin the US in 1970 (Destination America 2012).
Ryu 10Similarly, identification and widespread cultivation of the best crop varieties,development and utilization of the crop-specific processing technologies, and introduction andmarketing of value-added products have been essential to the pineapple and the pomegranate’scommercial success. The Hawaiian Pineapple Company, later known as the Dole FruitCompany, widely popularized the pineapple and pineapple products across the US as thecountry’s prime supplier of pineapple and pineapple products in the early 1900s (Beauman2005). To successfully commercialize the pineapple, James Dole selected and propagated asingle hybrid variety of pineapple, the Cayenne; introduced and widely distributed the pineapplein canned form; and marketed canned pineapple as “Hawaiian” to maintain the positiveassociation between the pineapple and the tropics (Beauman 2005; Okihiro 2009).The company recognized as popularizing pomegranate in the US--POM Wonderful—relied on similar tactics (Resnick and Wilkinson 2009). Led by marketing expert Lynda Resnick,the company relied on a single variety of pomegranates, the Wonderful variety, known for itssweet taste, ruby red color, and high nutritional value compared to other pomegranate varieties(Resnick and Wilkinson 2009; “Pomegranate Wonderful Fruit” 2012). While POM Wonderfulmassively expanded fresh pomegranate sales in the US, bringing sales from $0 to $165 million inits first seven years of operation, POM Wonderful popularized pomegranates largely throughpopularizing pomegranate juice, which is much simpler to consume than the pomegranate. Inorder to commercialize the juice, Resnick invested in developing new processing technologies,first to optimize juice extraction from arils and then to manufacture a unique container forpomegranate juice: a bottle shaped like two pomegranates vertically stacked (Resnick andWilkinson 2009). Then, Resnick’s marketing of the pomegranate as an extremely nutritious“superfruit” needed in daily doses was crucial to the company’s success at a time when US
Ryu 11consumers were increasingly focusing on food products’ nutritional attributes. Resnick’s adeptuse of print, radio, billboard, and film advertisements and social media were also important to thecompany’s success in popularizing the pomegranate in the US (Resnick and Wilkinson 2009).The cases of the potato, pineapple, and pomegranate show that extremely successfulcommercialization of the jackfruit requires the research and identification of the top jackfruitvarieties, development of jackfruit-specific processing technologies, and strategic marketing ofjackfruit and its products. Establishment of a jackfruit research institute and jackfruit processingcenters in Karnataka will enable Karnataka to fulfill these requirements.1. Establish a Jackfruit Research InstituteCurrently, jackfruit suffers from a lack of research and development globally (APAARI2012). Yet, there is worldwide concern about the increasing loss of diversity of plant geneticresources, especially in underutilized crops (Williams and Haq 2002), and a recent study foundthat genetic erosion is reducing the quality of Bangladesh’s jackfruit, before the diverse geneticresources have even been leveraged for crop improvement (Khan et al. 2010). Jackfruit’s geneticdiversity is a valuable resource for the present and for the future, and there is no better place todocument and leverage it than in India: jackfruit originated in southern India’s Western Ghats, sosouthern India has the greatest diversity of genetic resources for the jackfruit, in addition toclimates suitable for these varieties (APAARI 2012). India has the latent potential to become theglobal leader in jackfruit research.Research into the best jackfruit varieties will have enormous positive influence onjackfruit commercialization. Because the jackfruit flowers are open-pollinated, there is especiallywide variation in seedlings (Elevitch and Manner 2006). From the tremendous variety ofjackfruit varieties in India, jackfruit varieties can be selected for optimal color, taste, texture, and
Ryu 12tree height (for ease of harvesting). “Gumless” jackfruit varieties also exist, lacking the stickylatex that makes jackfruit bulb extraction particularly cumbersome. No organizations have yetundertaken systematic efforts to characterize or propagate these varieties, but there is enormouspotential in doing so, as gumless jackfruit is easier to eat and serve fresh and to process intovalue-added products (CARD-Krishi Vigyan Kendra 2012). One farmer in Karnataka who tookan interest in gumless jackfruit successfully grafted a gumless tree through experimentation, andthe fruit was so desirable that he distributed over 100,000 gumless jackfruit seedlings across fourstates in southern India over the next two decades (National Innovation Foundation-India 2011).In addition, jackfruit trees can be grafted or systematically planted to yield fruit year-round, asdifferent varieties ripen during different months (Fernandes 2012). In a jackfruit researchinstitute, the ideal jackfruit varieties for commercialization can be systematically developed.Then, the institute can disseminate grafts of these ideal varieties to farmers and agriculturalentrepreneurs to enable mass production of high-quality and standardized fruit.The institute should also work to develop processing technologies optimized for thejackfruit. To the knowledge of the author, the Jackfruit Promotion Council, and the president ofthe Group Rural Agricultural Marketing Association (GRAMA), there are no jackfruit-specificprocessing technologies in India. Companies in other countries focused on jackfruit processingmay have developed some jackfruit-specific processing technologies to enable mass production(Shree Padre, personal communication, November 20, 2012), but in India, individuals andgroups engaged in jackfruit processing use the same technologies for dehydrating and pulpingjackfruit bulbs as they use for other tropical fruits (Joseph Luckose, President of GRAMA,personal communication, November 20, 2012; Mohan Hodawdekar, jackfruit processor inMaharashtra, personal communication, December 8, 2012). The extraction of bulbs from the
Ryu 13jackfruit and the peeling of seeds during jackfruit seed flour production are extremely labor-intensive processes (Joseph Luckose, personal communication, November 20, 2012):mechanization of these processes would greatly facilitate commercialization of the jackfruit.There is a strong precedent for the establishment of a jackfruit research institute: aresearch institute has been established for jackfruit’s close relative, the breadfruit, in Hawaii(California Rare Fruit Growers 1996). Founded in 2003, the Breadfruit Institute is based at theNational Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG) in Hawaii (National Tropical Botanical Garden2012). The Institute manages the world’s largest and most extensive breadfruit collection,including over 120 varieties from the Pacific region, the Seychelles, Indonesia, and thePhilippines. The Institute’s mission is to promote the conservation and use of the breadfruit forboth food and reforestation, and the Institute, though a not-for-profit organization, is working topopularize the fruit locally as a sustainable and nutritious resource (National Tropical BotanicalGarden 2012b; Diane Ragone, personal communication, October 22, 2012). The head of theInstitute, Diane Ragone, notes that breadfruit processing is yet in its infancy and is working tosecure funding to do additional work in processing: in the meantime, she is using seminars,recipe books, and workshops with chefs, breadfruit growers, and consumers to increaseawareness and facilitate production of the many value-added products possible from thebreadfruit (Diane Ragone, personal communication, October 22, 2012).Thus, the precedent exists for the establishment of a jackfruit research institute thatencompasses all aspects relevant to the fruit’s popularization, from the identification anddevelopment of ideal fruit varieties, through processing strategies, to product marketing toconsumers. Just as the Breadfruit Institute is based at the NTBG, a not-for-profit institutiondedicated to learning about the world’s tropical plants and spreading this knowledge (National
Ryu 14Tropical Botanical Garden 2012a), India’s Jackfruit Institute could be based at an agriculturaluniversity.The University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Bangalore, presents an ideal location forIndia’ Jackfruit Institute. Established in 1964, the University’s Main Research Station is centeredon a 202-acre farm (University of Agricultural Sciences 2012). The University has a record ofdedication to jackfruit research and promotion. Researchers at UAS have identified a fewexcellent varieties of jackfruit, studied genetic variation in jackfruit, and worked to developjackfruit processing strategies for commercialization (APAARI 2012; CARD-Krishi VigyanKendra 2012; “Stress on Jackfruit Processing” 2012; Shyamalamma et al. 2008). UAS sponsorsjackfruit seminars and processing training programs during the jackfruit season, and scientistsattend jackfruit festivals to meet innovative farmers and to share knowledge (S. Shyamalamma,personal communication, June 15, 2012; S. Shyamalamma, personal communication, December5, 2012). In addition, UAS’s Vice-Chancellor is a prime advocate for jackfruit. In 2007, Vice-Chancellor Narayana Gowda helped form the Toobugere Jackfruit Growers’ Association (TBJA)of small and marginal jackfruit farmers in Doddaballapur district of Karnataka. As a result of thisgroup’s formation, jackfruit farmers’ incomes have tripled (Padre 2009).Furthermore, based in Bangalore, India’s third largest city (Census India 2011), theJackfruit Research Institute could gain international repute and rally national and internationalresources to support jackfruit. A general manager at Sathguru Management Consultants, based inHyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, has conveyed to the author his organization’s marked interest inworking to increase jackfruit utilization (Suresh Damodaran, personal communication,November 6, 2012). Food science faculty members at Cornell University and UC Davis, two ofthe US’s best universities for food science, have communicated their interest in studying
Ryu 15jackfruit species and processing in India (Suresh Damodaran, personal communication,November 6, 2012; Diane Barrett, personal communication, November 16, 2012). Dr. NyreeZerega, Director of the Graduate Program in Plant Biology and Conservation at the ChicagoBotanic Garden, has conducted research on jackfruit and breadfruit in the past and is increasinglyinterested in focusing her research on jackfruit species and processing (Nyree Zerega, personalcommunication, December 6, 2012; Khan et al. 2010; Zerega et al. 2003; Zerega, Ragone, andMotley 2005).Finally, in the context of increasingly frequent jackfruit festivals across southern India,the Jackfruit Institute will be recognized as a landmark initiative effectively leveraging anamazing opportunity for broad contributions to society. The farmers, processors, researchers, andfanatics who have been in attendance at over three dozen jackfruit festivals held in southernIndia (Vinayak 2012) will deeply appreciate the Institute and make good use of its resources,actively contributing to creating a bright future for India’s jackfruit.2. Establish Jackfruit Processing CentersIn order to ensure the brilliant success of Karnataka’s jackfruit industry, Karnataka needsto invest in the development of jackfruit processing centers: at these regional resource centers,jackfruit farmers and entrepreneurs will be equipped with the knowledge and techniques thatemerge from the Jackfruit Research Institute. The jackfruit processing centers will also serve asthe meeting point for seminars for jackfruit species and product awareness and training programsfor processing and marketing. These centers will then spearhead the allocation of subsidies andgrants for jackfruit processing enterprises.The precedents for these processing centers are established in Sri Lanka and even inMaharashtra and Kerala. In Sri Lanka, the Horticulture Crop Research and Development Institute
Ryu 16(HORDI) run by the Ministry of Agriculture has provided jackfruit processing training to streetvendors, housewives, and entrepreneurs (Padre 2012). The Ministry secured funding from theInternational Centre for Underutilized Crops (ICUC) to provide these trainings free of cost.Fourteen institutions have joined HORDI in organizing workshops and conducting trainingprograms. One of these institutions, the Rural Enterprises Network (REN), has spearheadedunripe jackfruit dehydration and bottling of jackfruit products. The non-profit organization haslarge-scale and small-scale electric driers and other processing equipment on site for trainingprograms and assists micro and small-scale rural enterprises with other business developmentservices. Agricultural journalist and jackfruit expert Shree Padre reports, “As a result, Sri Lankahas become the world leader in making jackfruit the key to food security and raising the incomesof the poor” (Padre 2012).Jackfruit processing is advancing rapidly in Maharashtra and Kerala as well. Anentrepreneur in Sindhudurg, Maharashtra, developed a cost-effective semi-automatic machine toproduce pulp from a locally abundant jackfruit variety, and this innovation led to the creation ofSfurti, a consortium dedicated to the pulp’s commercial production (Express News Service2012). Today, the consortium produces jackfruit chocolates and modaks in enormous quantitiesas well. One of the local farmers who worked with the consortium has since exported jackfruitpulp to the UK and to the US. The organization continues to innovate and expand, with supportthe Maharashtra Government’s Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME). InSeptember 2012, plans were revealed for a collaboration among Sfurti, the Kerala StateHorticultural Mission, and the Jackfruit Promotion Council to “create a jackfruit revolution”(Express News Service 2012).
Ryu 17In Kerala, the Kerala Small Farmer’s Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) spearheaded atraining program on the manufacturer of jackfruit products in 2004 in collaboration with theDepartment of Home Science at Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani (Kerala SmallFarmer’s Agribusiness Consortium n.d.). Today, Kerala SFAC is giving subsidies for jackfruitprocessing (Shree Padre, personal communication, December 3, 2012). Meanwhile, CARD-Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pathanamthitta has been organizing jackfruit processing trainingprograms in collaboration with the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development(NABARD) for multiple years (CARD-Krishi Vigyan Kendra 2012; Shree Padre, personalcommunication, December 3, 2012).Most notable is that in November 2012, the Kerala State Agriculture Department initiateda project to develop branded commercial jackfruit products abundantly across the state (TNN2012). The state government has given administrative sanction for the establishment of a primaryprocessing hub for jackfruit in Pathanamthitta District. This follows the Kerala government’ssanction of Rs. 5,255,000 (105,100 USD) for comprehensive study of jackfruit varieties,availability, processing, and products. Plans state that the processing center will be established inassociation with CARD-Krishi Vigyan Kendra of the Indian Council of Agricultural Researchand that CARD-Krishi Vigyan Kendra will help select the 50 entrepreneurs with the highestpotential for jackfruit processing and product development training programs. In the future, theprocessing center will provide technological assistance and guidance to aspiring jackfruitentrepreneurs (TNN 2012).ConclusionThus, the need and the precedents for Karnataka’s Jackfruit Institute and JackfruitProcessing Centers are evident. Utilization of jackfruit, an naturally abundant and nutritious
Ryu 18resource, will enormously strengthen food security and economic security in Karnataka and willpave the way for the commercialization of many other underutilized crops. The cases of thepotato, pineapple, and pomegranate show that extremely successful commercialization of thejackfruit requires the research and identification of the top jackfruit varieties, development ofjackfruit-specific processing technologies, and strategic marketing of jackfruit and its products.Establishment of a jackfruit research institute and jackfruit processing centers in Karnataka willenable Karnataka to fulfill these requirements. Hawaii’s Breadfruit Institute, Sri Lanka’s HORTIand REN, and Maharashtra and Kerala state governments’ jackfruit promotion efforts providemeaningful precedents for the establishment of the Institute and Processing Centers. Now is thetime for Karnataka, India’s leading jackfruit producer, to take the lead in jackfruit research andcommercialization and to usher in a bright future for jackfruit and for Karnataka.
Ryu 19References“Aid to Set Up Jackfruit Processing Units.” 2012. The Hindu. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-kerala/aid-to-set-up-jackfruit-processing-units/article4110253.eceAment, Phil. 2007. “Potato Chips.” The Great Idea Finder.http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/potatochips.htmAsia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions (APAARI). 2012. “JackfruitImprovement in the Asia-Pacific Region – A Status Report.”http://www.apaari.org/publications/jackfruit-report.htmlBeauman, Fran. 2005. The Pineapple: The King of Fruits. London: Chatto & Windus.Brahmavar, Suvarna. 2012. “Beltangady: State-level Fest Bears Sweet (Jack)Fruit.” DaijiworldMedia Network. http://www.daijiworld.com/news/news_disp.asp?n_id=140604California Rare Fruit Growers. 1996. “Jackfruit.” http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/jackfruit.htmlCARD-Krishi Vigyan Kendra. “Jackfruit ‘Wonder Fruit.’” http://panasamwonders.blogspot.com/Chandrashekhar, MV. 2010. Karnataka Horticulture Dept to Invest Rs 50 Lakh for Minor FruitPromotion Scheme. Food and Beverage News.http://www.fnbnews.com/article/detnews.asp?articleid=27999§ionid=34Census India. 2011. “Cities Having Population 1 Lakh and Above.”http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2/data_files/India2/Table_2_PR_Cities_1Lakh_and_Above.pdfChicago Botanic Garden. 2012. “Plant Science – Our Scientists: Nyree Zerega, Ph.D.”http://www.chicagobotanic.org/research/staff/zerega.php
Ryu 20Department of Horticulture, Government of Karnataka. 2009. “Data on the District-wiseHorticultural Crops in Karnataka State during the Year 2008-09.”http://horticulture.kar.nic.in/A%20&%20P%202008-09/Fruits.pdfDestination America. 2012. “Top 10 Surprising Fast Food Facts.”http://destinationamerica.tumblr.com/post/25438406326/top-10-surprising-fast-food-factsDH News Service. “Jackfruit Can Be Next Major Export.” Deccan Herald.http://www.deccanherald.com/content/270286/jackfruit-can-next-major-export.htmlElevitch, Craig and Harley Manner. 2006. “Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit).” SpeciesProfiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. http://agroforestry.net/tti/A.heterophyllus-jackfruit.pdfExpress News Service. 2012. “Jackfruit All Set to Create Sweet Revolution.” The New IndianExpress. http://newindianexpress.com/cities/thiruvananthapuram/article609294.ece“Farmers’ Organisations Call for Jackfruit Mission.” 2010. The Hindu.http://www.thehindu.com/news/states/kerala/article607550.eceFernandes, Ronald. 2012. “Jack(Fruit) of All Varieties and More…” Deccan Herald.http://www.deccanherald.com/content/257260/jack-fruit-all-varieties-more.htmlFood and Nutrition Security Community of Solution Exchange. 2011. “Promotion of Jackfruit –Experiences; Examples.” Food and Agriculture Organization.http://horticulture.kar.nic.in/A%20&%20P%202008-09/Fruits.pdfFood and Beverage News Bureau. 2012. “Karnataka Horticulture Dept to Promote JackfruitCultivation, Processing.” Food and Beverage News.http://www.fnbnews.com/article/detnews.asp?articleid=32338§ionid=37
Ryu 21Ghosh, G. H. 1994. “Studies on Flowering and Prevalence of Fruit Drop in Jackfruit.” AnnualReport (1993-94). Gazipur, Bangladesh: Horticulture Research Center.Haq, Nazmul. 2006. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus. Southampton, UK: SouthamptonCentre for Underutilised Crops.Hettiarachchi, U., S. Ekanayake, and J. Welihinda. 2011. “Nutritional Assessment of Jackfruit(Artocarpus Heterophyllus) Meal. Ceylon Medical Journal 56, no. 2: 54-58.“Horticulture Mission to Help Set up Jack Fruit Processing Units.” 2010. The Hindu.http://www.thehindu.com/news/states/kerala/horticulture-mission-to-help-set-up-jack-fruit-processing-units/article909404.eceInternational Potato Center. 2010. “Facts & Figures.” http://cipotato.org/potato/facts“Jackfruit Movement.” 2010. Civil Society.http://www.civilsocietyonline.com/Archive/aug10/aug102.aspJackfruit Promotion Council. 2012. “Jackfruit for Local Food Security.”http://jackfruitpromotioncouncil.wordpress.com/2012/07/09/page-under-construction/jpc-state-proposal-5-7-12-to-core-group-discussion/“Joining Hands to Promote the Jackfruit.” 2012. The Hindu.http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/article3415425.eceKarnataka State Horticulture Mission. n.d. “Karnataka State Horticulture Mission, Lalbagh,Bangalore.” http://www.horticulture.kar.nic.in/nhm/nhm.htmKerala Small Farmer’s Agribusiness Consortium. n.d. “Past Programmes.”http://www.sfackerala.org/pastprogrammes.php
Ryu 22Khan, Ruby, Nyree Zerega, Salma Hossain, and M. I. Zuberi. 2010. “Jackfruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus Lam.) Diversity in Bangladesh: Land Use and Artificial Selection.EconomyBotany 64, no. 2: 124-136.Kiniry, Laura. 2012. “Best French Fries in the U.S.” CNN Travel.http://www.cnn.com/2012/11/26/travel/best-french-fries/index.htmlKoeppel, Dan. 2008. Banana: The Fate of the Fruit that Changed the World. New York: Plume.Kumar, R. 2008. “India’s Exports Potential in Processed Food Products. Arth Anvesan 2, no. 3:33-38.Lal, Athul. 2012. Horticultural Mission Mulls Value-Addition of Jackfruit. The New IndianExpress. http://newindianexpress.com/states/kerala/article603927.eceMalik, SK, Rekha Chaudhury, OP Dhariwal, and DC Bhandari. 2010. “Genetic Resources ofTropical Underutilized Fruits in India.” New Delhi: National Bureau of Plant GeneticResources.Munishamanna, KB, B Ranganna, S Subramanya, R Chandru, and V Palanamuthu. 2007.Development of Value-Added Products from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) toEnhance Farm Income of Rural People. International Conference on 21stCenturyChallenges to Sustainable Agri-Food Systems, eds. P.G. Chengappa, N. Nagaraj, andRamesh Kanwar.Nair, Radhika P. 2012. Kerala Launches String of Proposals to Nurture Young Entrepreneurs.The Economic Times. http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2012-09-28/news/34148371_1_kerala-tourism-gulf-countries-mobile-solutionsNational Innovation Foundation – India. 2011. “Latexless Jackfruit.”http://www.nif.org.in/node/718
Ryu 23National Tropical Botanical Garden. 2012a. “About NTBG.” http://ntbg.org/about/National Tropical Botanical Garden. 2012b. “About the Breadfruit Institute.”http://ntbg.org/breadfruit/mission.php“National Jackfruit Fete to Unveil a Veritable Treat.” 2011. The Hindu.http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-kerala/article1686363.eceNewman, Robert and Ephraim Lansky. 2007. Pomegranate: The Most Medicinal Fruit. LagunaBeach: Basic Health Publications, Inc.Okihiro, Gary. 2009. Pineapple Culture: A History of the Topical and Temperate Zones.Berkeley: University of California Press.Padre, Shree. 2012a. “Jackfruit Businss.” Civil Society Online.http://www.civilsocietyonline.com/pages/details.aspx?146Padre, Shree. 2012b. “Jackfruit on the Table.” Civil Society Online.http://www.civilsocietyonline.com/pages/Details.aspx?101Padre, Shree. 2011a. “Forgotten Kalpavriksha.” Crops for the Future. Thiruvananthapuram:National Jackfruit Fest. http://www.cropsforthefuture.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Forgotten-Kalpavriksha-inner.pdfPadre, Shree. 2011b. “Lanka Pulls Off Jackfruit Jackpot.” Civil Society.http://www.civilsocietyonline.com/Archive/aug11/aug116.htmPadre, Shree. 2009. “Rise of the Humble Jackfruit.” Civil Society.http://www.civilsocietyonline.com/Archive/aug09/aug01.asp“Pomegranate Wonderful Fruit is Packed with Cancer-Fighting Properties.” 2012. AmazingPomegranate Health Benefits. http://www.amazing-pomegranate-health-benefits.com/pomegranate-wonderful.html
Ryu 24Potato Council Ltd. 2012. “Potato Varieties.” Potato Council.http://www.britishpotatoes.co.uk/potato-varietiesReader, John. 2011. Potato: A History of the Propitious Esculent. New Haven: Yale UniversityPress.Resnick, Lynda and Francis Wilkinson. 2009. Rubies in the Orchard: How to Uncover theHidden Gems in Your Business. New York City: Doubleday.Roah, John. 2002. “Saving the Potato in its Andean Birthplace.” National Geographic.http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/06/0610_020610_potato.htmlStradley, Linda. 2004. “Potato – History of Potatoes.” What’s Cooking America.http://whatscookingamerica.net/History/PotatoHistory.htm“Stress on Jackfruit Processing.” 2012. Food and Beverage News.http://www.fnbnews.com/article/detnews.asp?articleid=32429§ionid=32Swami, Shrikant, N. J. Thakor, P. M. Haldankar, and S. B. Kalse. 2012. “Jackfruit and Its ManyFunctional Components as Related to Human Health: A Review.” ComprehensiveReviews in Food Science and Food Safety 11: 565-576.Thomson, William. 2012. “India’s Food Security Problem.” The Diplomat.http://thediplomat.com/indian-decade/2012/04/02/india%E2%80%99s-food-security-problem/TNN. 2012. “Agri Dept Move to Develop Food Products from Jackfruit.” Times of India.http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-11-18/thiruvananthapuram/35186161_1_jackfruit-products-agriculture-departmentUniversity of Agricultural Sciences. 2012. “University of Agricultural Sciences.”http://www.uasbangalore.edu.in/
Ryu 25Vinayak, A. J. 2012. “Jackfruit Revival Bears Fruit.” The Hindu Business Line.http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/industry-and-economy/agri-biz/article2126164.ece?homepage=trueWilliams, Jeffrey and Nazmul Haq. 2002. Global Research on Underutilized Crops. AnAssessment of Current Activities and Proposals for Enhanced Cooperation. Southampton,UK: International Center for Underutilized Crops.http://www.fao.org/docs/eims/upload/216780/UOC_Assessment_current_activities.pdfZerega, Nyree, Diane Ragone, and Timothy Motley. 2005. “Systematics and Species Limits ofBreadfruit (Artocarpus, Moraceae).” Systematic Botany 30, no 3: 603-615.Zerega, Nyree, Diane Ragone, and Timothy Motley. 2003. “Complex Origins of Breadfruit(Artocarpus altilis, Moraceau): Implications for Human Migrations in Oceania. AmericanJournal of Botany 91, no. 5: 760-766.Zuckerman, Larry. 1998. The Potato: How the Humble Spud Rescued the Western World. NewYork: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Ryu 26AppendixIndian Jackfruit Products and EntrepreneursJackfruit juiceJackfruit wine
Ryu 36Natural Ice Cream’s fruit processing centerJackfruit elayada
Ryu 37Jackfruit pulping facility in Maharashtra
Ryu 38All of the photos above have been contributed by Shree Padre of Adike Padrike and Chef JoseVarkey of Casino Hotel, CGH Earth Experience.For more photos of jackfruit products and entrepreneurs, please visit the CARD-KVK blog athttp://panasamwonders.blogspot.com/ and the Jackfruit Promotion Council blog athttp://jackfruitpromotioncouncil.wordpress.com/The photos below show Annie Ryu, the author of this proposal, at a press conference inMangalore, a jackfruit festival, a jackfruit processing training program, and a specialty foodstores in the US marketing Global Village Fruits dried jackfruit.
Ryu 41Biography of the Author, Annie RyuAnnie Ryu is a prolific social entrepreneur studying Social Anthropology, Global Healthand Health Policy at Harvard University. She tasted jackfruit for the first time while in India inJune 2011. Subsequent meetings with jackfruit researchers, farmers, and processing groups ledher to found Global Village Fruits, Inc., a social enterprise working to build jackfruit productsupply chains in India and to introduce jackfruit products to the US market. Before foundingGlobal Village Fruits, Annie served as the Nicaragua field investigator for a multi-country studyon prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and the Associate Director for thenonprofit Children of the Border. In 2010, she co-founded Remindavax, Inc., a text-messagereminder program serving over 4,000 mother-child pairs and their community health workers inrural southern India. She is a Global Good Fund Fellow, one of Glamour’s 2012 Top TenCollege Women, and a former (’10-’11) honorary Fellow at the Legatum Center forDevelopment and Entrepreneurship at MIT.