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Background Information for The Kite Runner

Background Information for The Kite Runner






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    Background Information for The Kite Runner Background Information for The Kite Runner Presentation Transcript

    • Background Information for The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini A. Krespil
    • Introduction
      • First Afghan novel to be written in English
      • Over 9 million copies sold worldwide
      • Translated into over 25 languages
      • Is on the list of “Banned and Challenged Books”
      • Kite Running is a popular Afghan pastime.
    • About the Author
      • Khaled Hosseini was born in 1965 in Kabul, Afghanistan
      • Moved to the US in 1980
      • Graduated from med school in 1996
      • Practices internal medicine
      • The Kite Runner is Hosseini’s first novel.
    • Synopsis
      • The Kite Runner opens in Kabul in the mid-1970s. Raised in the same household but separated by class, Amir and his best friend Hassan are inseparable until a tragic event changes their relationship forever. Their intertwined lives and their fates reflect the eventual tragedy of the world around them.
    • Time & Place
      • The story takes place in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and America.
      • Early 1970s to early 2000s
    • Afghanistan and the World
    • Afghanistan and its Surroundings
    • Landscape
    • Historical Background
      • Geographically and historically, Afghanistan has been the central focus for Eurasian civilizations’ activity.
      • - Central asia
      • Afghanistan has been invaded and conquered by several empires:
      • Persian
      • Greek
      • Arab
      • Turk
      • Mongol (Under Genghis Khan)
      • British
      • Soviet
      • And most recently by the Americans and their allies.
    • Tribal System
      • Hierarchical network of several tribes
      • -Pashtun: Most numerous and most powerful (Persian, Sunni Muslim)
    • Tribes
      • Hazara: - least powerful tribe
      • - descendants of the Mongols
      • - Shia Muslims
      • - mountain dwellers
    • Historical Timeline
      • 1 st century: Buddhist Kushans rule
      • 3 rd century: Kushans defeated by the Persians. Religion: Zoroastrianism (Zarathustra)
      • 7 th century: Muslim Arabs defeat the Persians
      • 1219: Under Genghis Khan, the Mongols overthrow the Arabs and devastate Afghanistan
      • Safawids ruled in western Afghanistan and Moguls ruled in eastern (including Kabul) Uzbeks controlled the north
      • Afghanistan only emerged as a nation in 1747 under Ahmad Shah. He is known as the father of Modern Afghanistan.
      • Muslim
      • Pashtun
      • Peaceful rule until 1973 when Mohammad Daoud joins with Afghan communist to overthrow his brother-in-law, the king.
      • Afghanistan switches from being a monarchy to being a republic.
      • 5 years later, Daoud and his family are murdered when the communist party decides to take over the government.
    • Deterioration begins…
      • Mid 70s-: Afghanistan is pro-communist and anti-religious while its neighbors (Iran and Pakistan) are strongly Islamic.
      • 1979: Soviet Army sets up a government in Kabul
      • 1980s: To counter the Soviet presence, an Islamic jihad was declared to overthrow the Soviets.
      • Mujaheddin factions established (Afghan warriors)
      • To help defeat communism, were trained and generously funded by the CIA
      • 1989: As a result of the Jihad, Russia pulls out of Afghanistan
    • Aftermath
      • Russian casualties:
      • 15 000
      • Afghan Casualties:
      • Over 1 million dead
      • 6.2 million escape Afghanistan (now over half of the world’s refugee population)
      • Afghanistan is once again reduced to rubble
    • Recent History
      • The Mujaheddin could not agree on how to share the power
      • Civil war broke out among them dividing Afghanistan into several independent zones
      • This civil war resulted in over 10 000 casualties in Kabul alone
    • The Taliban
      • Lack of leadership left room for a group of Islamic fighters, the Taliban, to successfully rise to power
      • Talib = seeker of knowledge (Taliban is the plural form)
      • Came from Pakistan (and supported by them)
      • Pashtun
      • Sunni Muslim
    • Taliban
      • They began by helping rebuild the Afghani people’s moral (restoring peace and security)
      • Took over as Afghanistan’s government
      • Soon began enforcing laws through rigorous enforcement of what they deemed to be “Islamic Law”:
      • -public beating
      • -flogging
      • -amputation of hands
      • -stoning to death
    • Taliban
      • Became internationally famous for their sadistic repression of women
    • Taliban Rules for Women
      • Complete ban on women's work outside the home, which also applies to female teachers, engineers and most professionals.
      • Complete ban on women's activity outside the home unless accompanied by a mahram (close male relative such as a father, brother or husband).
      • Ban on women being treated by male doctors.
      • Ban on women studying at schools, universities or any other educational institution.
      • Requirement that women wear a long veil (Burqa), which covers them from head to toe.
      • Whipping, beating and verbal abuse of women not clothed in accordance with Taliban rules, or of women unaccompanied by a mahram.
      • Public stoning of women accused of having sex outside marriage.
      • Ban on the use of cosmetics. (Many women with painted nails have had fingers cut off).
      • Ban on women laughing loudly. (No stranger should hear a woman's voice).
      • Ban on women wearing high heel shoes, which would produce sound while walking. (A man must not hear a woman's footsteps.)
      • Compulsory painting of all windows, so women can not be seen from outside their homes.
      • Ban on the photographing or filming of women. 29- Ban on women's pictures printed in newspapers and books, or hung on the walls of houses and shops.
    • Rules for all of Society
      • Banned listening to music, watching of movies, television and videos
      • Ordered that all people with non-Islamic names change them to Islamic ones.
      • Ordered that men not shave or trim their beards
      • Ordered that all people attend prayers in mosques five times daily.
      • The kite flying has also been stopped.
      • Ordered all onlookers, while encouraging the sportsmen, to chant Allah-o-Akbar (God is great) and refrain from clapping.
      • Anyone who carries objectionable literature will be executed.
      • Anyone who converts from Islam to any other religion will be executed.
      • All boy students must wear turbans. They say "No turban, no education".
      • Non-Muslim minorities must distinct badge or stitch a yellow cloth onto their dress to be differentiated from the majority Muslim population. Just like what did Nazis with Jews.
      • Banned the use of the internet by both ordinary Afghans and foreigners.
    • 9/11 to Today
      • Taliban admitted to harbouring Osama Bin Laden and his radical Islamist group Al-Qaeda
      • After the 9/11 attacks, the US and its allies went into Afghanistan and quickly overthrew the Taliban
      • Unfortunately, due to lack of successful reconstruction, the Taliban have reappeared.
      • Afghanistan in slowly and painfully trying to rebuild itself.