Meteorology -Weather acloutier 2011 power point

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Continuing our unit on METEOROLOGY - Weather …

Continuing our unit on METEOROLOGY - Weather
Hurricanes & Storms
Coriolis Effect
Convection Cells

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Transcript

  • 1. WEATHER acloutier 2011 copyright Sun, heat, water, wind
  • 2. We talk about the weather every day
    • Observation and hypothesis > what will the weather be for the weekend?
    Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere Weather is the current state of the atmosphere Climate is the average weather over a long period of time
  • 3. Air mass and movement of the planet
    • Coriolis effect deflects air masses to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere
    • Coriolis effect combines with the heat imbalance found on Earth to form the trade winds, prevailing westerlies, and polar easterlies
  • 4. Coriolis effect
  • 5. Rotation and Convection Currents
    • The Earth has gases in the atmosphere and water on the surface
    • The dense cold air of the poles sinks towards the surface , heading for the warm tropical air
    • The warm tropical air at the equator is forced to rise
  • 6. Warm air rises, cold air sinks
  • 7. Hadley Cells are convection cells
  • 8. Polar cells, Hadley cells and Ferrel cells depend on each other to mix the temperatures on Earth
  • 9. Three major wind systems in each hemisphere on Earth
    • Doldrums happen at the equator 0* not much happens with wind here, the air hovers and is very hot
    • Trade Winds occur at the 30* north and south latitudes
    • Here cooler air sinks and heats up as it moves to the equator in a westerly direction
    • When it hits the equator it rises again and moves back to the 30*, and repeats the process
  • 10. Prevailing westerlies
    • Prevailing westerlies flow between 30* and 60* north and south latitudes in a circulation pattern opposite than the trade winds
    • Surface winds move towards the poles in a generally easterly direction
    • Remember, the winds are named for the direction from which it blows.
  • 11. Notice the origin of the wind
  • 12. Polar easterlies
  • 13. Wind circulations of Earth
  • 14. Jet Stream
    • The jet stream is a narrow band of fast moving , high altitude, westerly winds
    • Wind , temperature and pressure are all related
    • Differences in temperature and pressure cause wind
    • The larger temperature gradient in the upper-level atmosphere’s air results in strong westerly winds > this is the cause and effect of the jet stream
  • 15. Images of the jet stream phenomenon
  • 16. Fronts
    • A front is a narrow region separating two air masses of different densities
    • Remember, density differences are caused by the differences in temperature, pressure, and humidity
    • Fronts can stretch over thousands of kilometers across Earth’s surface
    • Its when colliding air masses of different densities collide bring dramatic changes in the weather
  • 17. Cold fronts & Warm fronts
    • Cold fronts displace warm air and forces the warm air up along a steep front
    • Clouds showers and sometimes thunderstorms can happen
    • Blue line with pointed triangles symbolize a cold front, the blue triangles point in the direction the front is moving
    • Warm fronts are where warm air displaces cold air, moves more slowly , encounters less friction with the ground
    • Cloudiness and precipitation occur
    • Red line with half circles are the symbol for a warm front
    • With the circles pointing in the direction the front is moving
  • 18. Cold Warm
  • 19. Meteorology symbols for fronts
  • 20. Stationary front and occluded front
    • Stationary front
    • Sometimes two air masses meet and neither one advances into another territory
    • The boundary stalls so the air masses stall
    • Usually the temperature gradient is so similar and the pressure gradient too
    • The symbol is both the triangle and half circle alternated
  • 21. Rain, rain…go away !
    • Occluded fronts happen when cold air rushes in and wedges the warm air up
    • Warm air is squeezed between the two cold fronts
    • Count on rain on both sides of the fronts
    • Purple triangles and half circles (semicircles) on a line represent an occluded front on a weather map
  • 22. High Pressure Low Pressure
  • 23. Map of the United States of America
  • 24. Thunderstorms
    • Unequal heating of the Earth’s surface within one air mass can cause a thunderstorm > air-mass thunderstorm
    • Another thunderstorm can be formed when cold fronts advance rapidly pushing up a steep cold front boundary
    • This rapid movement produces a thunderstorm
    • Sometimes a line hundreds of kilometers long and thousands of meters high
  • 25. Thunderclouds cumulonimbus
  • 26. New theory for chain reaction of thunderstorms producing lightning
  • 27. The end