Physical Oceanography & Coastal Shoreline 2011


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Oceanography Unit chapters 15 & 16

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Physical Oceanography & Coastal Shoreline 2011

  1. 1. Physical Oceanography & Coastal Shoreline by Annie Cloutier Science Department Sandwich High School copyright 2011
  2. 2. Tides of the oceans
  3. 3. TIDES are the periodic rise and fall of sea level High tide & Low tide The force of gravity creates tidal bulges on the planet Influence of the Moon is the greatest in attracting the ocean waters because it is the closest. Gravitational effects of the Sun and the Moon combine to generate the largest tide differences Moon Phases > Full Moon, New Moon The Bay of Fundy in Canada has the largest tide difference in the world ~ 54 feet
  4. 4. Phases of the Moon influence tides <ul><li> </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Ocean waves are generated by wind. </li></ul><ul><li>Water in a wave moves in a circular motion but does not move forward </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Features of waves include the crest at the top </li></ul><ul><li>Trough at the base of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>Wavelength –distance between two crest </li></ul><ul><li>Height – distance between crest and trough </li></ul><ul><li>A wave is a rhythmic movement that carries energy through space or matter </li></ul>
  7. 7. A wavelength can determine the depth to which a wave disturbs the water This depth called the wave base is equal to half the wave length When a wave reaches a shallow water, the friction of the ocean bottom slows the wave down and the top falls forward becoming a breaker
  8. 8. Density is the ratio of mass of an object to its volume D=M/V Seawater is always denser that fresh water because of the high salinity Temperature and salinity affect the density of water Colder temperatures make water more dense Increase salinity = increase in the density of water Salinity is the amount of salts and minerals in the solution of water
  9. 9. TEMPERATURE PROFILE OF OCEAN WATERS Surface Layer < thermocline layer >bottom Layer The oceans can be divided into three layers: 1.the relatively warm surface layer 2. the transitional thermocline 3. the cold bottom layer <ul><li>polar regions > -2 * C </li></ul><ul><li>equatorial regions >30* C </li></ul><ul><li>temperature decreases significantly with depth, even in the tropics </li></ul><ul><li>sunlight layer </li></ul><ul><li>thermocline (transitional rapid change) layer </li></ul><ul><li>bottom layer is cold (near freezing) and dark </li></ul>
  10. 10. Coriolis Effect * the Northern hemisphere the movement of particles move to the right above the equator * the Southern Hemisphere to the left below the equator
  11. 11. Patterns of the world ocean currents & gyres
  12. 12. EQUILIBRIUM Density currents are currents of great depths generated by salinity and temperature differences Arctic cold sinks to the greatest depths of the oceans and travels all the way to the Equator where it rises and warms slowly These processes mix the oceans working for equilibrium –a state of balance between cold and warmer temperatures to average out the ocean watery environment
  13. 13. Long shore current & Littoral Drift transport of sediments along the foreshore and shore face due to the action of breaking waves and the longshore current (littoral drift is the same as longshore transport)
  14. 14. Jetty, groin, and break water structures change the natural flow of sediments
  15. 15. SHORELINE FEATURES Headlands absorb most of the energy (power) out of most waves. Waves move faster in deeper waters Beaches are sloping bands of sand, pebbles, gravel, mud at the end of the sea
  16. 16. Continental and geological features of the oceans
  17. 17. Estuaries are the nurseries of the marine life ! We need to preserve and protect these environments
  18. 18. THE END