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 Matter & Atomic Theory acloutier copyright 2011
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Matter & Atomic Theory acloutier copyright 2011



Chapter 3 Earth & Space Science 9th

Chapter 3 Earth & Space Science 9th



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 Matter & Atomic Theory acloutier copyright 2011 Matter & Atomic Theory acloutier copyright 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • MATTER & ATOMIC THEORY Earth & Space Chapter 3 acloutier 2011 copyright Everything on Earth & beyond
  • Atoms are the smallest particle of an element and has all the characteristics of the element.
    • consist of subatomic particles Democratus Greek
    • protons – a positive charged particle
    • neutron- no charge (neutral)
    • electrons- negatively charged particle
    • protons & neutrons are located in the nucleus
    • electrons are located in energy layers in the electron cloud outside of the nucleus
    acloutier 2011
  • Sodium Na symbol atomic number 11 atomic mass 22.990 = 23 (round up) add protons + neutron = atomic mass # acloutier 2011
  • 2 8 18 32 first four energy levels
    • 2 first energy level
    • 8 second energy level
    • 18 third energy level
    • 32 fourth energy level
    • * some elements go up to seven energy levels surrounding the nucleus
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  • Valence electrons are the electrons in the atoms outermost energy level and they determine the behavior of different elements acloutier 2011
  • Valence electrons are the outermost electrons
    • valence electrons determine the type of chemical behavior of the different elements
    • highly reactive are elements combine easily with other elements
    • inert elements do not combine easily with other elements because they have full outermost energy levels
    acloutier 2011
  • Isotopes elements have the same number of protons but, have different numbers of neutrons for variations in mass
    • Carbon 6 atomic number 6 is the average mass of all carbons
    • C 6 C 12 C 14 > ( Carbon 12 is the most common naturally occurring isotope)
    • Isotopes have the same chemical properties of the element*
    • Unstable isotopes are said to be unstable and release radioactivity.
    • Radioactivity is a spontaneous process where a nucleus can lose protons and neutrons, change a proton to a neutron, or, a neutron into a proton.
    • Stars do this naturally and have created the various elements in the Periodic Table of elements
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  • STARS do this naturally and actually formed all the elements found in the Periodic Table acloutier 2011
  • Abundance of elements in the UNIVERSE
    • hydrogen and helium are the main elements in STARS
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  • Abundance of elements in Earth’s crust:
    • percent of elements
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  • Abundance of elements in atmosphere on Earth
    • Percent of elements in atmosphere on Earth
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  • Compounds
    • a compound is composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined
    • compounds have totally different chemical properties than the elements that composed them
    • the stable state of the compound is created in the chemical bond , the forces that hold the compound together
    • Covalent bonds – are shared electrons in the outermost energy level
    • the atoms stay together because of the positive charge of the proton attracting the negatively charged electrons
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  • Covalent bonds > sharing an electron
    • Covalent bonds occur when the outermost electron shell is not completely full
    • atoms become more stable when they have to share an electron and complete the outer shell
    • because the protons have a positive charge and the electrons a negative charge, they are attracted and hold together the molecules.
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  • Ionic bonds occur when atoms gain or lose an electron atoms that gain or lose electrons are called IONS
    • Salt is formed from an ionic bond
    • Sodium and chlorine combine to create a new substance unlike the original elements chemical characteristics
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  • Polar molecule water is a covalent bond the atom does not share electrons equally
    • The attraction of the hydrogen atoms to the oxygen atom is much stronger and the electrons spend more time near the oxygen atom
    • When atoms do not share equally, they are known as polar molecules
    • Polar bonds have a positive end and a negative end to the molecule
    • Hydrogen is the positive end - Oxygen is the negative end of the polar molecule
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  • Ions have a positive or negative bond Opposites charges attract (always write the positive ion first)
    • The net electrical charge - + or – charged ions, equals zero, each ion cancels each others charges to zero
    • Compounds formed by ionic bonds are known as ionic compounds
    • Two of the most important and common ionic bonds are silicate ions SO 4 (make up largest type of Earth rocks)
    • Carbonate ions CO 3
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  • Opposites attract acloutier 2011
  • What can happen when atoms have …
    • if an atom is more than half full (has four or more in it’s outermost shell), it tends to form a negative ion
    • when atoms lose a valence electron it tends to become a positive ion having more protons
    • if an atom is less than half full in its outermost electron shell, it tends to lose its valence electrons and become positively charged ion
    • more negatively charged particles = negatively ion -
    • more positively charged particle = positive ion +
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  • Acids > 1 - 6.9 range Bases > 7 .1 - 14 range Distilled Water is neutral at 7 acloutier 2011
  • Acids are a solution containing a substance that produces hydrogen ions H+ in water 1 > 6.9 acloutier 2011
  • Bases produce hydroxide ions OH – in solutions acloutier 2011 Too many mice ! 5 flies, 2 worms, 6 minnows…hand me the TUMS please
  • Mixtures can be separated physically acloutier 2011
  • States of Matter exist in four states
    • Solid > have a definite shape and are densely packed matter
    • Liquid > take on the shapes of their containers (or not)
    • Gas > lave large spaces between particles and move freely
    • Plasma > heated to temperatures of 5,000 *C collisions knock atoms together that the electrons are knocked away from atoms. Found in Stars, Sun, lightning, light bulbs, neon signs
    • * more plasma in the solar system and universe than any other matter !
    • Can you figure out why ?
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  • E = mc² First Law of Thermodynamics
    • The Conservation of Matter and Energy states that matter can not be created nor destroyed , but, can be changed from one form of matter to another
    • Energy can not be created nor destroyed, but, can be changed from one form to another
    acloutier 2011 Energy times the speed of light…don’t blink !
  • Time for some worksheets the end acloutier 2011