THE CONSTITUTION 1978• Recognised linguistic plurality and established that Spanish Languages other than Castilian could be ofﬁcial in accordance with the statutes of autonomy.• Recognised the richness of language diversity as a cultural heritage which must be respected and protected.
Historical issues• One of the oldest languages in Europe and predates the arrival of the languages classiﬁed as IndoEuropean.• Obscure origin.• Oral tradition, ﬁrst written text 16th c.• Many dialects.• Geographically and socially fragmented until the 20th century.
Modern history• 1936, ofﬁcial language in three out of the four Basque territories, BAC.• Franco´s repression and political persecution.• Statute of Autonomy for the BAC 1979.• 1982, basic law to standardise the use of Basque.
geographical area• Southern Basque Country in the Spanish State: Araba, Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa, Basque Autonomous Community, BAC• Community of Navarre.• Iparralde, or the Northen Basque Country in the French State.
1982, basic law to standardise the use of Basque.• Euskara the indigenous language of the Basque people will have, like Spanish, ofﬁcial status in the Basque Country.• The right to know and to use both languages.• No linguistic discrimination.• Royal Academy of the Basque Language.
Education• The ikastolak- Basquization both in public and private sectors.• BAC statutory education system (up to 16 years) had to guarantee knowledge of the BAC´s two ofﬁcial languages.• Different bilingual teaching models.• University Education.
BASQUE AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONS• The linguistic proﬁle system LP1, LP2, LP3, LP4.• Administrative documents.• Health care and the police, outside the system.
MEDIA• Article 22 of the LNE,the right to be informed in Basque.• Relating to BAC media, the government will promote the preferential use of Basque.• Setting linguistic quotas for television programmes.• Newspaper, Berria.
private and commercial sectors• LNE/Trade Union activities and meetings.• Bilingual signs, warnings, communications, documents, contracts, invoices.
genuine euskara use• Territory • big urban centres vs provinces• Age • under 16 (new speakers vs traditional family speakers) • place of residence.
sociolinguistic aspects• Lower competence in Euskara causes insufﬁcient motivation for using it.• Power mechanisms and the degree of Institutionalisation of spheres of Euskara.• Prestige, globalisation.
Basque identity Gobierno vasco 2004• Feeling Basque (69%)• Living and working in the Basque Country (32%)• Having been born in the Basque Country (32%)• Speaking Euskara (18%)• Being of Basque descent (10%)• Voting for a Basque nationalist political party (1%)
sociolinguistic proﬁle• Basque identity • Spanish identity• Gipuzkoa and • Araba and Bizkaia Bizkaias • Children of parents• Native speakers one or both are and their children Spanish speakers.• Having Euskara or • Spanish ﬁrst Euskara and language, model A Spanish, model D
BRIEF HISTORY OF GALICIAN• The language that emerged from Latin in Galicia.• The ﬁrst texts date from the 12th century.• Galician was used for all purposes, including high social functions.
the dark ages• 14th and 16th centuries, Castilian- speaking nobles and clergy replaced the the Galician-speakers having those roles.• Diglossic situation, Galician the lower of the two languages, being spoken only by the lower classes.• Industrial revolution, emigration from the rural areas to the cities.
The rexurdimento• The romanticism and the political victory over the French.• Late 19th century; ﬁrst grammars and dictionaries in Galician.• Publication of writers in Galician, language gaining prestige.• Dialectal fragmentation within Galician.
20th century• Galician continued to be spoken in rural communities. Urban dwellers more Castilian in the desire for social mobility.• Mass emigration from Galicia to Latin America.• 1905 Real Academia Galega (RAG)
• Decline in Galego.• 1936, Galician and Castilian were named ofﬁcial languages in Galicia in the “Estatuto Galego”.• Franco, cultural homogenisation.
The transition to democracy• 1978, Constitution sets the bases for the devolution of power.• 1981 Galician Estatuto, made Galician co-ofﬁcial with Castilian.• 1983 Law of Linguistic Normalisation(LNL)
The creation of a norm• Linguistic uniﬁcation by the creation of an ofﬁcial variety in order to prevent further fragmentation of the language.• ILG´S norms and Castilian;vulgarisms.• AGAL, Associacom Galega da Língua, strengthens the link between Galician and Portuguese.
The effectiveness of the language planning measures• Education • galescolas 0-3 • compulsory education • university level• Media, TVG and Radio station RG• Ofﬁcial institutions
The current diglossic situation• Standard forms of Castilian and standard Galician.• Standard Galician vs rural varieties. • “la aldea”, stigmatisation • la gheada
Attitudes towards galician by young speakers• Standard Galician seems not to play a decisive role in the construction of the identity of most adolescents.• New diglossia between the two varieties may shift to Spanish due to the difﬁculties of adopting a prestigious regional variety that excludes phonetic and lexical features characteristic of the variety thay have grown up.
history• Catalan is the native language of Catalonia.• 12th century ﬁrst written text.• The arrival of Spanish in Catalonia. • 16th and 17th century. • 18th century- War of Succession. • Catalonia lost its independence • Catalan prohibited.
The Renaissance of the language• Industrial revolution 19th century: • bourgeoise classes, recovery Catalan culture. • Spanish language of conversation for the working class.
Consolidation of spanish in catalonia• Dictatorship: • Catalan was prohibited. • immigration to Catalonia 6os and 70s• 1979 Statutes of Catalonia.
Catalan linguistic legislation• 1979 Linguistic Normalisation Law • Catalan is the native language of Catalonia. • The Catalan language is the ofﬁcial language of Catalonia, as is Spanish, which is ofﬁcal throughout the Spanish State. • The Generalitat shall guarantee the normal and ofﬁcial usage of both languages.
Linguisticnormalisation law 1983• Established a legal framework favouring the exclusive use of Catalan in the Generalitat: • the administration • the courts of law • education • media
Language and identity• Catalan model of integration based “ius linguae”.• Statute of Autonomy: “any citizen living, working in Catalonia is considered Catalan” vs the conception of integration: “any citizen who, regardless of origin, integrates into the Catalan community by learning Catalan, is a Catalan citizen.
jordi pujol• More than 20 years in the Presidency of the Generalitat.• Promoted linguistic nationalism.• Establishment of an important language policy machine in the autonomous Catalonia: • legislation • administrative institutions • public discourse
reinforce legal recognition of catalan distinctiveness• 1998, linguistic policy strengthens national identity and consolidates the Catalan linguistic model.• 2006, New Statute of Autonomy, stresses the principles of self- determination.
statute /article 6• Clariﬁes the relationship between Catalan and Spanish in Catalonia.• Citizens’ right to use both ofﬁcial languages but also the duty to know both.• Catalan in international context.
present day catalan• Increase of Spanish in Barcelona and its metropolitan area, Lerida and Tarragona.• The rest of Catalonia, Catalan speakers are majority.
CATALAN IN CATALONIA Año 2003 Año 2008 Speakers % Speakers %Habitual language 2 850 300 50.7% 2 933 300 47.6%Mother tongue 2 177 800 38.7% 2 186 000 34.6%Language of 2 947 400 52.5% 3 410 300 55.3%identification
• Speakers tend to use Spanish because of their origins or their family linguistic identity.• Catalan is being assimilated because it is the language of the middle class and the language of prestige as well as a sign that the speaker identiﬁes with Catalonia.
• Unlike other Catalan-speaking territories, intergenerational language transmission has not been disrupted.• Both languages are ofﬁcial, both are employed by government institutions. • Catalan local and regional government • Spanish government bodies controlled by the Central Government.
• Education domain stands out because of its extensive use of Catalan.• Spanish is the main language of the working class, industrial metropolitan areas of Barcelona and Tarragona.• Workplace. • Public sector/ both languages education and civil services but not the courts. • Private sector/ most demand Castilian.