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Academics Qpi


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Academic quality programming for at-risk youth; foundational instruction

Academic quality programming for at-risk youth; foundational instruction

Published in: Education, Spiritual
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  • 1. Instructional Practices for Youth with BD
    Ann F. Goldade, M.S. a.b.d.
  • 2. Top Notch Resource! Works Cited
  • 3. Based on 7 Core Beliefs
    Students with BD can learn.
    The use of scientifically based instructional programs and procedures are especially important for students with BD. Students with BD experience the worst social, academic and vocational outcomes relative to all other disability groups.
    Universal screening benefits all students.
    The use of multitiered models of service delivery, in which each tier represents increasing levels of support based on learner need(s) benefits all students.
    Decisions about learner interventions happen within a problem solving team approach and are based on tri-angulated data.
  • 4. 7 Core Beliefs Cont.
    All students benefit from frequent progress monitoring using instruments designed to measure small amounts of progress in an effective amount of time.
    Fluent performance in early reading, mathematics and written language must be ensured. It must be ensured.
    {Fluent Performance is operationalized to include efficient visual processing, working memory, long-term memory, and executive functioning. These are all required for a student to be able to produce correct responses to early reading, writing and math tasks} Fluent performance involves high levels of accuracy (mastery) and speed.
    • Basic early reading, math and writing skills are critical to high-order academic tasks and are best taught using a mastery-to-fluency instructional model.
  • Fundamental Effective Instructional Principles
    Basic reading, math and writing skills are best taught using a mastery-to-fluency approach.
    Mastery instruction involves the controlled presentation of unknown skills to consistent accuracy levels of 90% accuracy.
    Fluency instruction, then, is repeated presentation of known skills designed to produce high levels of accuracy and speed (100% accurate).
    This kind of mastery and fluency is so essential when students are asked to engage in higher level thinking skills needed to understand a story, solve a problem or write a story.
    Large cognitive resources are needed when mastering basic skills; however, only limited cognitive resources are needed once these skills become fluent.
  • 5. Optimal Learning…occurs in students when instruction is carefully designed to help them master and then overlearn basic skills to the point that they can apply them fluently.
    Cognitive Resources Used to Master Basic Skills vs. When Fluent
  • 6. Effective MasteryInstruction Components
    From Simple to Complex
    Complexity of Skill
    Instructional Sessions
    Solid Scope and Sequence is Required,
    aka task analysis 
  • 7. Effective Mastery Instruction Components Cont.
    The instructor starts with modeling the skill being taught and immediately ask the students to copy the modeled example. You take the student through the solid scope and sequence providing them multiple models and repeated lessons to achieve mastery.
    We know teachers’ instructional presentation is more effective when:
    …….....see next slide please! 
    It is critical teachers detect errors immediately and reteach the skill. Always prompt a “try again” approach because as in everything in life ‘practice makes perfect.’ Share your examples of ‘practice makes perfect’ with your students.
  • 8. We know teachers’ instructional presentation is more effective when:
    • Instruction and interventions are implemented with integrity
    • 9. Teachers are highly engaging and positive
    • 10. Teachers are well organized, use a brisk pace and provide students with encouragement and feedback ongoing
    • 11. Teachers get to know the instructional needs of students and thus adjust the scaffolding and support they give them based on student(s) needs.
    • 12. Teachers adjust their pacing according to student needs
    • 13. Teachers monitor students’ strengths and weaknesses through careful observation and tracking over time.
  • EffectiveFluency Instruction Components; Six Steps
    Select observable, pivotal skills (e.g., sight words) that are directly related to the content being taught (e.g., early reading skills).
    Select the range of skill practice items the student has mastered (where there are few or no errors).
    Develop fluency instruction sheets compromised of the skill you hope to teach (insert picture)
  • 14. Effective Fluency Instruction Components; Six Steps Cont.
    Establish daily performance standards in conjunction with your student, this should be reset daily as an interactive activity. 
    Conduct a series of short, timed instructional trails. Small groups are likely used in Tier II while Tier III may likely be more 1:1 or 1:2 instruction in a multi-tiered prevention model.
    Students chart their progress and work toward their contracted reinforcement. {that is tied to performance} Progress should be charted in ways that allow our students to learn skills that will help them succeed in a 21st Century world. Our limits should not be our students’ limits; we should show our kiddos how to grow their strengths and their weaknesses, this is a life-time endeavor if we do it right. 
  • 15. Problem-Solving ModelWhat to do when you don’t know what to do…
    • Problem Identification: Question to Address >>> Is there a discrepancy between current and expected performance? Tool >>>> Universal Screening
    • 16. Problem Analysis: Question to Address >>> Why is there a discrepancy between current and expected performance? Focus >>>> Identifying the mismatch between current instruction and those needed for the student to master the skill. Teams need to center on the factors that schools can control, such as instructional delivery methods. Here the student’s rate of learning must be established as well.
    • 17. Goal Setting: Question to Address >>> How much growth is required for the student to met the expected academic and social outcomes? Focus >>>> Comparing the students rate of learning to goal line based on normed standards.
  • Problem-Solving Model Cont.What to do when you don’t know what to do…
    • Plan Implementation: Question to Address >>> What changes in instruction and interventions will be done to ensure that students meet the benchmark performance goals? Focus >>>> A detailed plan that is monitored frequently for progress.
    • 18. Plan Evaluation: Question to Address >>> Are the changes made in instruction and interventions working?Focus >>>> Systematic, frequent (weekly or bi-weekly) progress monitoring is conducted. Student rate of progress, relative to the goal set, is analyzed. In the case of a downward trend, new intervention must be planned.