Sustaining Communities of Practice School-wide PositiveBehaviour Support Queensland, Australia Conference 2011Presented by Anne W. ToddUniversity of Oregonawt@uoregon.eduwww.uoecs.org www.pbis.org
• Provide some research & further resources the 4 Elements needed for Capacity Building & Sustainability across three tiers of support Preview Coaches Fidelity of Implementation Checklist Preview TIPS Meeting Foundations Clearly defined purpose and roles What happens BEFORE, DURING, AFTER a meeting Meeting Minute and Action Planning Form Preview the Problem Solving Process Defining “problems” with precision Using data for decision-making 2
Early Childhood Academic and Social Behavioral Supports Response to Intervention Behavior Specialist Support Meetings focusing on Support across all three Tiers Team Initiated Problem Solving ◦ Data use for decision-making
Coaching is the active and iterative delivery of: ◦ (a) prompts that increase successful behavior, and ◦ (b) corrections/redirections that decrease unsuccessful behavior. ◦ Coaching is done by someone with credibility and experience with the target skill(s) ◦ Coaching is done on-site, in real time Before activities/meeting, During meetings, After meetings ◦ Coaching is done after initial training ◦ Coaching is done repeatedly (e.g. monthly) ◦ Coaching intensity is adjusted to need Initial implementation coaching Sustained implementation coaching
Fluency with trained skills Adaptation of trained concepts/skills to local contexts and challenges And new challenges that arise Rapid redirection from miss-applications Increased fidelity of overall implementation Improved sustainability Most often due to ability to increase coaching intensity at critical points in time.
Build local capacity Become unnecessary…but remain available Maximize current competence Never change things that are working Always make the smallest change that will have the biggest impact Focus on valued outcomes Tie all efforts to the benefits for children Emphasize Accountability Measure and report; measure and report; measure and report. Build credibility through: (a) consistency, (b) competence with behavioral principles/practices, (c) relationships, (d) time investment. Precorrect for success Contact before problems emerge
Training Outcomes Related to Training Components Training OutcomesTraining Components Knowledge of Skill Classroom Content Implementation ApplicationPresentation/ Lecture 10% 5% 0%PlusDemonstration 30% 20% 0%PlusPractice 60% 60% 5%Plus Coaching/ AdminSupport 95% 95% 95%Data Feedback Joyce & Showers, 2002
Building Capacity and Sustainability For Social Competence,4 Integrated Academic Achievement, and SafetyElements OUTCOMES SYSTEMS DATA PRACTICES Supporting Staff & Student Behavior and Decision Making
(Kellem et al.) School-wide School-wide Behavior Systems Behavior Systems in Place NOT in place Literacy Interventions in Improved NO Literacy Place Literacy Improvement Literacy Interventions NO Literacy NO Literacy NOT in Place Improvement Improvement
Having data is necessary but insufficient Building effective team process (roles/ protocol) is essential. Use an electronic Agenda that prompts problem solving Problem solving starts with precise problem statements Use data-based decision rules to build, implement and modify solutions.
People aren’t ,red from solving problems – they’re are ,red from solving the same problems over and over.
Universal Screening ◦ Proportion of students with 0-1 Office Discipline Referrals (ODRs) 2-5 ODRs 6+ ODRs Progress Monitoring Compare data across time ◦ Prevent previous problem patterns Define Problems with precision that lead to solvable problemsNewton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS)Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual. 16
Using office discipline 6+ office discipline referralsreferrals as a metric for ~5% 2-5 office disciplineuniversal screening of referrals ~15%student social behavior 0-1 office discipline referral ~80% of Students Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual. 18
Jennifer Frank, Kent McIntosh, 12 Seth May 10 Cumulative Mean ODRs Per Month for 325+ Elementary Schools 08-09Cumulative Mean ODRs 8 6 0-1 2-5 6+ 4 2 0 Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun
Kimberly L. Ingram,Teri Lewis-Palmer and George SugaiJournal of Positive Behavior Interventions October 2005 vol. 7no. 4 224-236
Doesit make any difference if you build a behavior support plan on information from a functional assessment? Conduct a functional assessment: ◦ Plan A: Indicated by functional assessment ◦ Plan B: Contra-indicated by functional assessment
Three Schools Six students identified for high rates of verbal and physical aggression toward others. Whole school implementation of SWPBIS Whole school addition of Stop-Walk-Talk Direct observation of problem behavior on playground. Scott Ross, University of Oregon 26
Predictable, consistent, positiveand safe social culture (expectations defined, taught,acknowledged) “Stop”Everyone Change in thecan identify rewards for“respectful” Walk bullying.and non-respectful Change inbehavior. likelihood of Talk bullying
Baseline Acquisition Full BP-PBS Implementation Rob School 1Number of Incidents of Bullying Bruce Cindy School 2 ScottBehavior Anne School 3 Ken 72% 28 3.14 School Days 1.88 .88
28% increase 19% decrease BP-PBS, Scott Ross 29
22% decrease21% increase BP-PBS, Scott Ross 30
Four students Staff person for morning check in Staff person for afternoon check out All staff on board Parents knowledgeable about the program Getting started = one day ◦ All staff alerted, parent/guardian alerted, student taught how to use the system Direct Observation: 120 10 second intervals = 20 minutes measuring the % of intervals engaged in problem behavior
Direct Observation data for Research purposes Baseline CICO% ofintervalsengaged inproblembehavior 20 minute observations= Peer composite= 4 randomly 120 ten second intervals selected students for 5 minutes each= 20 minute obs.
Two fourth grade males Class of 32 students Reported low intensity but chronic problem behaviors Began CICO program established at school Multiple baseline across settings ◦ ABCBC
BL CICO FB-CICO CICO FB-CICO FB-CICO in reading = Choice of Reading sitting IF all 3’s both kids prior to lunch FB-CICO in math = Math opportunity to go to check out together at end of school day% of 120 ten second Sessionsintervals on-task Creah
CICO BL FB-CICO CICO FB-CICO FB-CICO in reading = Reading Choice of sitting IF all 3’s both kids prior to lunch FB-CICO in math = opportunity to Math go to check out together at end of school day% of 120 ten second Sessionsintervals on-task Keaton
Team InitiatedProblem Solving(TIPS) Model Review Status and Identify Problems Evaluate and Develop and Revise Refine Action Plan Hypotheses Develop and Discuss and Implement Select Action Plan Solutions Problem Solving Foundations
Baseline Coaching TIPS 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% School A Foundation Score 0% 100%% DORA Foundations Score 80% 60% 40% 20% School B 0% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% School C 0% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% School D 0%
Baseline Coaching TIPS 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% Thoroughness of 40% 30% 20% decision-making 10% 0% School A% DORA Thoroughness Score 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% School B 0% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% School C 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% School D 0%
Structure of meetings lays foundation for efficiency & effectiveness
Core roles ◦ Facilitator ◦ Minute taker Typically NOT the administrator ◦ Data analyst ◦ Active team member Can one person serve multiple roles? Backup for each role Are there other roles we could build it? (e.g. Reporter?)
Problem A key to collective problem solving is to provide a visual context that allows Use everyone to follow and contribute DataOut of SolutionTime
PBIS Team Meeting Minutes and Problem-Solving Action Plan FormToday’s Meeting: Date, time, location: Facilitator: Minute Taker: Data Analyst:Next Meeting: Date, time, location: Facilitator: Minute Taker: Data Analyst: Where in the FormTeam Members (bold are present today) would you place: Today’s Agenda Items Next Meeting Agenda Items 01. 1. 02. 2. 1. Planning for next PTA 03. meeting? Administrative/General Information and Issues Information for Team, or Issue for Team to Address Discussion/Decision/Task (if applicable) 2. Too many students in Who? By When? the “intensive support” for literacy 3. Schedule for hallway Problem-Solving Action Plan Implementation and Evaluation for next monitoring Precise Problem Statement, based on review of Solution Actions (e.g., Prevent, Teach, month Goal, Timeline, data Prompt, Reward, Correction, Extinction, Who? By When? Decision Rule, & Updates (What, When, Where, Who, Why) Safety) 4. There have been five fights on playground in last month. Evaluation of Team Meeting (Mark your ratings with an “X”) 5. Our Ratingmeeting report NextSo-So No Yes 1. Was today’s meeting a good use of our time? 2. In general, did we do a good job of tracking whether we’re completing the tasks we agreed on at previous meetings? on lunch-room status. 3. In general, have we done a good job of actually completing the tasks we agreed on at previous meetings? 4. In general, are the completed tasks having the desired effects on student behavior?
Regular meetings & regular attendance & regular time The “right” people The right roles ◦ Facilitator ◦ Minute Taker ◦ Data Analyst ◦ Active Team Members Accomplishments – Products of successful meeting ◦ Meeting Minutes (record of decisions & tasks concerning administrative/general issues) ◦ Problem-Solving Action Plan (record of decisions & tasks concerning problems identified by team) 48
Decisionsare more likely to be effective and efficient when they are based on data. The quality of decision-making depends most on the first step (defining the problem to be solved) Define problems with precision and clarity
Datahelp us ask the right questions… they do not provide the answers: Use data to ◦ Identify problems ◦ Refine problems ◦ Define the questions that lead to solutions Data help place the “problem” in the context rather than in the students.
Theprocess a team uses to problem solve is important: ◦ Roles: Facilitator; Recorder; Data analyst; Active member ◦ Organization Agenda; Old business (did we do what we said we would do); New business; Action plan for decisions. What happens BEFORE a meeting What happens DURING a meeting What happen AFTER a meeting
Build “decisionsystems” not “data systems” Use data in “decision layers” ◦ Is there a problem? (overall rate of ODR) ◦ Localize the problem (location, problem behavior, students, time of day) ◦ Get specific Don’t drown in the data It’s “OK” to be doing well Be efficient
Documentation of Logistics of meeting (date, time, location, roles) Agenda items for today’s meeting ( and next meeting) Discussion items, decisions made, tasks and timelines assigned Problem statements, solutions/decisions/tasks, people assigned to implement with timelines assigned, and an evaluation plan to determine the effect on student behavior Reviewing Meeting minutes An effective strategy for getting a snapshot of what happened at the previous meeting and what needs to be reviewed during the upcoming meeting What was the issue/problem?, What were we going to do?, Who was going to do it and by When?, and How are we measuring progress toward the goal? Visual tracking of focus topics during and after meetings Prevents side conversations Prevents repetition Encourages completion of tasks
Team InitiatedProblem Solving Identify(TIPS) Model Problems Evaluate and Develop Revise Hypothesis Action Plan . Discuss and Develop and Select Implement Solutions Action Plan Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual. 56
Build a picture for the pattern of office referrals in your school. Goal Compare the picture with a national average1. Identify problems with previous years Compare the picture empirically2. Identify problems early Compare the picture with social standards of faculty,3. Identify problems in a manner that families, students. leads to problem solving not just whining Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual. 57
What data to monitor ◦ ODR per day per month ◦ OSS, ISS, Attendance, Teacher report ◦ Team Checklist/ SET (are we doing what we planned to do?) What question to answer ◦ Do we have a problem? What questions to ask of Level,Trend, Peaks ◦ How do our data compare with last year? ◦ How do our data compare with national/regional norms? ◦ How do our data compare with our preferred/expected status? If a problem is identified, then ask ◦ What are the data we need to make a good decision?
Precise problem statements include information about the 5 Big questions: ◦ What is problem, and how often is it happening ◦ Where is it happening ◦ Who is engaged in the behavior ◦ When the problem is most likely ◦ Why the problem is sustaining
Primary Statements Precision ◦ Too many referrals Statements ◦ September has more ◦ There are more ODRs suspensions than last for aggression on the year playground than last ◦ Gang behavior is year. These are most likely increasing to occur during first recess, with a large ◦ The cafeteria is out of number of students, control and the aggression is ◦ Student disrespect is related to getting out of control access to the new playground equipment.
Total enrollment= 550 3 classes per grade level 18 classrooms (30/class) Primary Problem Statement ◦ fighting and physical aggression on playground 550 students full playground area, expectations, equipment use Precise Problem Statement ◦ High rates of physical aggression, disrespect and inappropriate language on the playground during second and third grade recess. Many students are involved and it appears they are trying to get access to equipment/games 180 2ne/3rd graders, routine for accessing/sharing equipment/games
30 25hours 20 2 precison elements 15 4+ precision elements 10 5 0 Planning time Implementation time:staff Implementation time: students
Bullying (verbal and physical Gang-like behavior is aggression) on the playground increasing is increasing during “first recess,” is being done mostly by four 4th grade boys, and seems to be maintained by social praise from the bystander peer group. Texting during school A large number of students in is becoming more each grade level (6, 7, 8) are using texting to spread negative rumors, and harass peers. Texting occurs both during the school day, and after school, and appears to be maintained by attention from others.
Carly is reading 20 cwpm Carly is having (goal is 60), skips or guesses reading difficulties at words she doesn’t know, mostly during language arts 2nd graders, who entered 50% of 2nd graders school after Oct 31, do not are not meeting math know whole numbers 75-100 and are not benchmarks accurately adding two digit numbers because of lack of skills
Compare data across time Moving from counts to count/month
Total Office Discipline Referrals as of January 10Total Office Discipline Referrals
Look first at your patterns (tell the story) ◦ Level, Trend ◦ Peaks ◦ Match data to current perceptions Compare your data ◦ With national median ◦ With last year ◦ With what your faculty/students/ families want
Grade Range Number of Mean Enrollment Median ODRs Schools per school per 100 per school dayK-6 2565 452 .226-9 713 648 .509-12 266 897 .68K-(8-12) 474 423 .42
Elementary School with 150 Students Compare with National Median 150 / 100 = 1.50 1.50 X .22 = .33Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving 71(TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.
Elementary School 465 students (465/ 100 = 4.6 X .22= 1.01) Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual. 72
Elementary School 1500 Students (1500/100 =105 X .22= 3.3)Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving(TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual. 73
How can we avoid the problem context?Prevention Who, When, Where Schedule change, curriculum adaptation, etcTeaching How can we define, teach, and monitor what we want? Teach appropriate behavior Use problem behavior as negative exampleReward How can we build in systematic reward for desired behavior?Extinction How can we prevent problem behavior from being rewarded?Curricular How can we modify the curriculum to problemAdaptations behavior from occurring?Corrective What are efficient, consistent consequences forConsequence problem behavior?Data Collection How will we collect and use data to evaluate (a) implementation fidelity, and (b) impact on student outcomes?
Identified problem ◦ for last 4 mos., Major ODRs per day higher than national median ◦ increasing trend across all 5 mos. Primary or Precise???!
Trevor Test Middle School 11/01/2007 through 01/31/2008 (last 3 mos.)
1. Most Disruptions occur in Cafeteria2. Most Disruptions occur in Cafeteria between 11:30 AM and 12:00 PM3. Most instances Inappropriate Language occur in Cafeteria between 11:30 AM and 12:00 AM4. Many Students involved
Many students from all grade levels are engaging in disruption, inappropriate language and harassment in cafeteria and hallway during lunch, and the behavior is maintained by peer attention A smaller number of students engage in skipping and noncompliance/defiance in classes, (mostly in rooms 13, 14 and 18), and these behaviors appear to be maintained by escape.
Prevention *Teach behavioral expectations in cafeteria *Maintain current lunch schedule,Teaching but shift classes to balance numbers.Reward Establish “Friday Five”: Extra 5 min of lunch on Friday for five good days.Extinction Encourage all students to work for “Friday Five”… make reward for problem behavior less likelyCorrective Consequence Active supervision, and continued early consequence (ODR)Data Collection Maintain ODR record and supervisor weekly report
Team Initiated ReviewProblem Solving Status and(TIPS) Model Identify Problems Evaluate and Develop and Revise Refine Action Plan Hypotheses Develop and Discuss and Implement Select Action Plan Solutions Problem Solving Foundations
◦ Before the meeting: Call Facilitator to make sure Roles are defined Big 5 SWIS reports are available Agenda prepared Prompt to ask questions during the meeting Check in with data analyst & help prepare data summary Check in with Minute Taker Set up Meeting Minute form for the meeting◦ During the meeting Reinforce organization Help data analyst use SWIS decision-rules Prevent drowning in data◦ After meeting Help Minute Taker clarify/clean up meeting minutes Make sure meeting minutes are disseminated
◦ Before: Call Facilitator Make sure issues from last meeting are on next meeting agenda Make sure Big 5, internet, & projector are available Prompt to ask questions during the meeting Help Data Analyst prep data summary Check in with Minute Taker Prompt to project previous meeting minutes ‘save as’ with the current meeting date◦ During: Make sure issues from last meeting are addressed Prompt team members to use problem-solving Mantra, as needed Prompt minute taker to ‘cut’ completed tasks & update/add items throughout the meeting◦ After: Help Minute Taker clarify/clean up meeting minutes
◦ Before: email prompt to facilitator minute taker◦ During: be quiet, but supportive Prompt team members as needed◦ After: Celebrate Review meeting minutes, support as needed
Stay on meeting minute distribution list ◦ Review meeting minutes, offer suggestions Attend meetings as schedule allows ◦ Prompt team members to use problem solving mantra Send email to team members acknowledging efforts and successes Annually, prompt team to conduct Meeting Foundations Checklist
Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual. Todd, A. W., Horner, R. H., Newton, J. S., Algozzine, R. F., & Algozzine, K. M. (2011). Effects of Team Initiated Problem Solving on Meeting Practices of School-Wide Behavior Support Teams. Journal of Applied School Psychology. Todd, A. W., Kaufman, A., Meyer, G., & Horner, R. H. (2008). The Effects of a Targeted Intervention to Reduce Problem Behaviors: Elementary School Implementation of Check In - Check Out. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 10(1), 46-55. Ross, S. W., & Horner, R. H. (2009). Bully prevention in positive behavior support. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(4), 747-759.
Ingram, K.L., Lewis-Palmer, T, & Sugai, G. Function-Based Intervention Planning: Comparing the Effectiveness of FBA Function-Based and Non— Function-Based Intervention Plans. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions October 2005 vol. 7 no. 4 224-236.Kellam, S. G., Ling. X., Merisca, R., Brown, C. H., & Ialong, N. (1998). The effect of the level of aggression in the first grade classroom on the course and malleability of aggressive behavior into middle school. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 165-185.