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• “A task is a piece of classroom work that involveslearners in comprehending, manipulating, producing orinteracting in the target language while their attention isfocused on mobilizing their grammatical knowledge inorder to express meaning, and in which the intention isto convey meaning rather than to manipulate form.(Nunan)• A task is any activity that reflects real life and in whichlearners focus on meaning.
• Activities where the target language is used by thelearner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order toachieve an outcome(Willis)• „Task‟ is therefore assumed to refer to a range of workplans which have the overall purposes of facilitatinglanguage learning – from the simple and brief exercisetype, to more complex and lengthy activities such asgroup problem-solving or simulations and decision-making. (Breen, 1987, p. 23)
1. Arousing students‟ interest2. Doing things3. Communicating ideas4. Conveying information5. Solving problems6. Working in context7. Involving more than one language knowledge or skill8. Analyzing, discussing, negotiating9. Working in pairs or groups10. Allowing different end-products
• Aims to provide learners with a natural context forlanguage use.• Approach to language teaching that is based on thebelief that learners will be more successful and moreeffective in learning forms and focus when itfocuses on the task instead on actual languagelearning.• Based on communicative task– real life, realexperiences
• 1. An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction inthe target language.• 2. The introduction of authentic texts (teaching materials) into thelearning situation.• 3. The provision of opportunities for learners to focus not only onlanguage, but also on the learning process itself.• 4. An enhancement of the learner‟s own personal experiences asimportant contributing elements to classroom learning.• 5. An attempt to link classroom language learning with languageactivation outside the classroom.
“The central purpose we are connected with islanguage learning, and task present this inthe form of a problem-solving negotiationbetween knowledge that the learner holdsand new knowledge.”
Pre-Task :1. The teacher sets the task2. The teacher defines the aim of the task3. The teacher provides necessary information aboutthe task4. The teacher provides or reminds students ofnecessary language (vocabulary and/or grammar)5. The teacher allows students time to prepare for theexecution of the task
During task/Task Cycle:1. Students fulfill the task by conscientiously making use oftheir language knowledge and skills, the information in theircommand and their creative ability.2. Students bring to best play their independent workingability and group cooperation.3. Students make use of various resources, such as websites,libraries, newspapers, as well as human resources.4. Students prepare for their report back.5. Students report back orally and/or in writing.
Post Task/Language Focus:1. Students make their own evaluation of their work2. Classmates appraise the performance, pointing outachievements and shortcomings3. Teacher gives all-round appraisal of the work, from pointof view of both task fulfillment and language use.4. Teacher and students together set follow-up work toconsolidate what has been learnt and to make up for whathas not been achieved.
Task Type Examples of Task TypesLearning Brainstorming, Fact FindingOrdering and Sorting Sequencing, Ranking, Categorizing,ClassifyingComparing Matching, Finding similarities,Finding differencesProblem Solving Analyzing real or hypotheticalsituations, reasoning, decision makingSharing personal experiences Narrating, Describing, Exploring andexplaining attitudes, opinions,reactionsCreative Tasks Brainstorming, Fact Finding,Ordering, Sorting
Advantages of TBL:• 1. Task based learning is useful for moving the focus ofthe learning process from the teacher to the student.• 2. It gives the student a different way of understandinglanguage as a tool instead of as a specific goal.• 3. It can bring teaching from abstract knowledge to realworld application.• 4. A Task is helpful in meeting the immediate needs ofthe learners and provides a framework for creatingclasses, interesting and able to address to the studentsneeds.
1. The designer of the tasks2. The initiator of the tasks3. The participant in the tasks4. The negotiator in the tasks5. The appraiser of the fulfillment of the tasks
• Group Participant• Monitor– class activities have to be designedso that students have the opportunity tonotice how language is used incommunication