Scott-tell story about Mariah (low IQ student struggling with comprehension tasks in the general education setting Anne and Nicole-as SPED teachers we get asked often for additional resources for non-SPED kids-this research gave us a chance look at how to help our peers as well (rationale)
Anne-While researching this topic, we found this article … it provided a comprehensive review of intervention research conducted over the past 20 years on comprehension instruction. We used the findings from this article as the outline for our presentation-some of the research was from rsearch cited in this article, and some is from other research or our own resources. Scott and I will be going over interventions, and Nicole will be covering other accommodations and modifications that can be made in the general education curriculum for this type of struggling reader.
Anne-The Edmonds article cites that interventions that involve reciprocal teaching were the most effective for improving comprehension. This sparked my interest because I have heard of PALS and K-PALS for younger learners, but nothing so specific for older learners. Klingner and Vaughn focused their research on students with SLD and EL. Their study taught the students to lead the instruction after reading and measured cooperative groups of classmates as well as tutoring groups where the older students had the intervention and used it with struggling students in lower grades. There was growth for everyone involved-struggling and non struggling readers-indicating this strategy would be useful in a classwide setting
Anne-I have used intervention central for progress monitoring tools, and really whenever I am struggling to come up with something new . They have a PDF of many reading interventions for all ages that can be applied across the board on Pg 46 of the PDF, there is a framework for reciprocal teaching. It teaches you how to introduce the topic, and then you can scaffold as you see fit with the release of control of the questioning. I like this one because you can customize it to your setting. (go to website and show examples)
Anne-The Center for Research on Learning is at the University of Kansas. They have many specific classwide interventions for struggling learners. A lot of these would be good in a SPED setting, but they could also be used in a classroom that might be a lower ability group, or for a group of students who need a specific skill.
What can we do for mariah
What Can We Do for Mariah?A look at interventions for students struggling with general educationcomprehension tasks in upper elementary through high school
Critical Findings▪ A Synthesis of Reading Interventions and Effects onReading Comprehension Outcomes for OlderStruggling Readers (citation at end of presentation)▪ Interventions– Most effective interventions target more than one area▪ Accommodations and Modifications– coteaching▪ Resources for Colleague EngagementScharlach (2008) found that on average, 80-85% of time is spent outside of special/titleinstruction. Students should be learning the entire time.
Peer Assisted Learning-Reciprocal Teaching• According to Edmonds et al, interventions that involved reciprocalteaching were the most effective at improving comprehension.• Klingner andVaughn focused define reciprocal teaching as “the teachermodels of strategies by ‘thinking aloud’ as she reads through a text.Theteacher then leads a text related discussion, assisting them in strategy useand gradually withdrawing support as it is no longer necessary. Asstudents become more proficient at applying the strategies, they taketurns being ‘teacher’ and leading discussions about text content.”• Using this strategy yielded comprehension growth for struggling and nonstruggling readers alike . One subset of students with SLD and EL wereable to answer comprehension questions 3 grade levels above where theystarted.
Peer Assisted Learning• Introduce strategy to students, teach them how to ask the questions of eachother, and students take turns being teacher.• The SavvyTeacher’s Guide: Reading InterventionsThatWorkhttp://www.jimwrightonline.com/pdfdocs/brouge/rdngManual.PDF• ReciprocalTeaching-lesson plan example with scope and sequence forintroducing conceptshttp://www.scribd.com/doc/87082125/RT-Handouts• ReciprocalTeaching-Another lesson plan examplehttp://www.hammond.k12.in.us/icle_reading/5%20CTE%20Reading%20Strategies/16a%20CTE%20Reading%20Reciprocal%20Teaching.pdf
Graphic Organizers for Expository TextDiCecco and Gleason1. GO’s good for constructing relational knowledge2. Students with LD benefitted from longer instruction (20 days)3. Measurement of successfulness depended on assessment. Good for essaywriting, not multiple choice tests or quizzes.4. Explicit teaching of the GO required. Results more pronounced on secondessay (practice).
Graphic OrganizersGraphicOrganizers Benefit Slow Learners-Lehmanhttp://www.slideshare.net/annes86/graphic-organizers-lehmanIntervention Central:http://www.interventioncentral.org/response-to-interventionSample Graphic Organizers:http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/SeeAlso:Best Practices in Literary Instruction-Chapter 6MicrosoftWord-Search graphic organizer forGO’s to edit yourself
Audio Texts1. Greater access to high-level material for students with mildcognitive disabilities.2. Potential to increase student independence.3. Allows students a way to re-engage in the classroom. Allowsstudent to struggle with the material as opposed to the reading ofthe material.Boyle et al (2003)
Where can students go? What canstudents do?▪ http://www.openculture.com/freeaudiobooks▪ www.audible.com▪ www.youtube.com▪ Radio Reading (potential for iPad use)
Kansas Learning StrategiesCenter for Research on Learning• Research based models for explicit instruction in the types of skills that manystudents acquire on their own, but some need taught explicitly.**opportunity for professional development**Need Strategic InterventionTraining (SIM) training to purchase booksStrategies: http://www.ku-crl.org/sim/strategies.shtmldemonstrated in class: paraphrasing strategy, visual imagery strategy, selfquestioning strategy, error monitoring strategy, the fundamentals of paraphrasing andsummarizingContent Enhancement: http://www.ku-crl.org/sim/content.shtmldemonstrated in class: unit organizer routine, the framing routine, conceptmastery routine
Accommodations and ModificationsTo help struggling readers in the general education classroom, thefollowing accommodations can be made for them; the first 6 areconsidered Explicit Instruction:According toWoolfolk (2001) as found in Johannessen (2004):*Instruction should be broken into small steps with short activitiesprovided, which are chosen and put in order by the teacher*Thoroughly teach material at a moderate pace
Accommodations and Modifications Con’t*Students should be given lots of opportunity for guidedpractice*Immediate and clear feedback should be given,including specific praise (Woolfolk, 2001) and how tocorrect errors (Tobin, 2005)*Level of difficulty should guarantee high rates ofsuccess (not too easy, but nor too hard)*All students should be called upon and given time toanswer the question
Accommodations and Modifications Con’tAccording to Ivey (1999):*Provide materials that span interests and difficulty level*Provide opportunities for students to share reading experiences with theirteachers and classmates, including reading one-on-one with a peer or teacher*Provide real purposes for readingAccording toTobin (2005):*Prompt sheets for students who struggle with open-ended tasks and writing-used for students to elaborate in their writing*Mini-lessons to engage students in prompting dialogues*Interactional inclusion (e.g. providing different ways students can ask for help)
Accommodations and Modifications Con’tAccording to Hamel and Smith (1998), Means and Kapp (1991), and Smith andWilhelm(2002) as found in Johannessen (2004):*Embed basic skills instruction in the context of more global tasks such as readingcomprehension.*Make connections with students’ out-of-school experience and culture.*Model powerful thinking strategies for students.*Encourage students to use multiple approaches to academic tasks and have studentsdescribe their answers aloud so that all students hear different ways to solve problems.*Provide scaffolding to enable students to accomplish complex tasks.*Use teaching strategies that will help students internalize the questions that good readersask when they read literature and good writers ask when complete complex writing tasks.
Co-teaching▪ According to Dieker and Murawski (2003), many schools are nowincorporating co-teaching to address inclusion▪ Co-teaching is when both the general education teacher and specialeducation teacher collaborate and plan lessons together,incorporating both the standards and students’ IEP goals, and eachplay a role in delivering the lesson . They are both involved in theprocess all of the time.
Different Ways to Co-teach▪ According toVaughn, Schumm, and Arguelles (1997) as found inTobin (2005), co-teaching can be done in the following ways:▪ One teaches, one assists▪ Both teachers conduct stations (teachers at 2 stations, while onegroup works independently; students rotate)▪ Split class and each teach a smaller group▪ Alternative teaching-one teacher workers with a small group to pre-teach, re-teach, or supplement instruction received by larger group▪ Team-teaching: teachers share instruction
Stages and Results of Co-teaching▪ According to Duchardt et al. (1999):▪ The stages of co-teaching are as follows: 1) Choose a teacher youtrust, 2) Find time to plan, 3) Brainstorm, 4) Prepare the lesson, 5) Co-teach the lesson, 6) Support your partner, and 7) Evaluate the lesson▪ Results of co-teaching include: collaborating, learning to be flexibleand collegial, learning through trial and error, challenging ourselvesand developing professionally, solving problems as a team, meetingneeds of diverse learners, and meeting the needs of teachers asdiverse problem-solvers
Resources For Colleague EngagementComprehension Studies Synthesis:http://www.slideshare.net/annes86/synthesis-reading-comp-edmondsReciprocalTeaching-students with SLD and ELhttp://www.slideshare.net/annes86/reciprocal-teaching-klingner-and-vaughnReciprocalTeaching Packet-other comprehension strategies as well from ReadingInterventionsThatWorkhttp://www.jimwrightonline.com/pdfdocs/brouge/rdngManual.PDFReciprocalTeaching-lesson plan example with scope and sequence for introducingconceptshttp://www.scribd.com/doc/87082125/RT-HandoutsReciprocalTeaching-Another lesson plan examplehttp://www.hammond.k12.in.us/icle_reading/5%20CTE%20Reading%20Strategies/16a%20CTE%20Reading%20Reciprocal%20Teaching.pdf
Resources For Colleague EngagementTeaching Cue Cardshttp://www.sanchezclass.com/docs/reciprocal-cards.pdfGraphic Organizer-grouphttp://kristinbergsagel.edublogs.org/files/2011/01/Reciprocal-Teaching-Graphic-Organizer-12ybpbu.pdfGraphic Organizer-two participantshttp://www.readingrockets.org/content/pdfs/reciprocalteaching_worksheet.pdfGraphicOrganizers Benefit Slow Learners-Lehmanhttp://www.slideshare.net/annes86/graphic-organizers-lehmanIntervention Central: Many resources for interventions and progress monitoringhttp://www.interventioncentral.org/Sample Graphic Organizers:http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/Audio Books: http://www.openculture.com/freeaudiobooks, www.audible.comwww.youtube.com
Resources for Colleague EngagementKansas Learning Strategies:http://www.ku-crl.org/sim/index.shtml• Links to SIM model, learning strategies, and content organizationHelping Struggling Readers Achieve Success-Johannessenhttp://www.slideshare.net/annes86/struggling-readers-johannessenCollaboration and Co-teaching-Duchardthttp://www.slideshare.net/annes86/collaboration-and-coteaching-duchartCo-teaching at Secondary Level-Deikerhttp://www.slideshare.net/annes86/coteaching-at-secondary-level-deikerCo-teaching in Language Arts-Tobinhttp://www.slideshare.net/annes86/coteaching-in-language-arts-tobinReflections onTeaching Middle School Readers-Iveyhttp://www.slideshare.net/annes86/reflections-on-teaching-struggling-middle-school-readers-ivey