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Negus513 Mp1
 

Negus513 Mp1

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    Negus513 Mp1 Negus513 Mp1 Presentation Transcript

    • Anne Negus EDTECH 513 Spring 2009
      • OBJECTIVES
      • At the conclusion of this lesson you will be able to:
      • Define in your words the Multimedia Principle
      • State the premise and at least two supportive statements that explain how the multimedia principle increases learning
      • Identify graphic types useful for certain content types
      • Identify examples of graphics that support learning
      • Premise: Students learn better from words and pictures than from words alone.
      The cognitive theory of multimedia learning is based on the idea that humans possess two qualitatively different channels for processing material - one for visually based representations and one for verbally based representations. Mayer , R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Channel 1 Channel 2 Better Understanding
      • Premise: Students learn better from words and pictures than from words alone.
      • “ Restroom this way”
      Although the verbal and pictorial representations may complement one another, they cannot be substituted for one another. Mayer , R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
      • Premise: Students learn better from words and pictures than from words alone.
      Although the same material can be described in words and depicted in pictures, the resulting verbal and pictorial representations are not informationally equivalent. Text alone The dog looked sad. Picture alone Mayer , R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Text and Picture The dog looked sad.
    • Multimedia supports a knowledge construction theory in which learning is seen as a process of active sense-making and teaching is seen as an attempt to foster appropriate cognitive processing in the learner. An important part of active processing is to mentally construct pictorial and verbal representations of the material and to mentally connect them.
    • Instructors must guide learner’s cognitive processing during learning enabling and encouraging learners to actively process the information. People learn more deeply from words and graphics, than from words alone. This is known as the “Multimedia Effect.”
    • People are more likely to understand material when they can engage in active learning – when they engage in relevant cognitive processing such as mentally integrating the material with their existing knowledge.
    •  
    •  
    • Unique and isolated information such as specific application screens, forms, or product data Groups of objects, events, or symbols designated by a single name A description of how something works A series of steps resulting in completion of a task Guidelines that result in completion of a task; cause-and-effect relationships Information Description Information Type Recommended Graphic Type
      • Define in your own words the “Multimedia Principle. “
      • Describe the premise and provide two supportive statements that explain how the multimedia principle increases learning.
      • Match the graphic types listed below with their best use with certain content types
      • From the list below, identify examples of graphics that best support learning .
      Representational Transformational Interpretive Organizational Relational Facts Concepts Process Procedure Principle Decorative Representational Transformational Interpretive Organizational Relational
      • OBJECTIVES
      • At the conclusion of this lesson you will be able to:
      • Define in your own words Contiguity Principles 1 and 2.
      • State at least two supportive statements that explain how the contiguity principles increase learning
      • Identify at least three violations of the contiguity principles
      • Identify at least three examples of the proper use of contiguity principles
    • Contiguity Principle 1: Place Printed Words Near Corresponding Graphics
        • Corresponding graphics and printed words be placed near each other on the screen (next to each other in space)
      Contiguity Principle 2: Synchronize Spoken Words with Corresponding Graphics
        • Corresponding graphics and spoken words be presented at the same time (next to each other in time.)
    • When a lesson separates corresponding words and graphics, learners experience a heavier load on working memory – leaving less capacity for deep learning. Based on an accurate understanding of how people learn – when words and pictures are separated, people must use cognitive resources just to match them up which creates extraneous processing.
    • When words and pictures are integrated, people can hold them together in their working memories and therefore make meaning connections between them. When a learner has to do the added work of coordinating corresponding words and visual components that are separated on the screen or in time, the limited capacity of the working memory is taxed – leading to cognitive overload.
    • The act of mentally connecting corresponding words and pictures is an important part of the sense-making process that leads to meaning learning. Putting corresponding words and pictures far apart from each other (or presenting them at different times) creates split attention which forces the learner to use limited working memory capacity to coordinate the multiple sources of information. Ayres & Chandler (2005)
      • SCROLLING SCREENS: In a scrolling window, graphics and corresponding printed text are separated, one before the other, and partially obscured because of scrolling screens.
      • FEEDBACK: Feedback is displayed on a separate screen from the practice or question
      • DIRECTIONS: Directions to complete practice exercises are placed on a separate screen from the application screen in which the directions are to be followed.
      • NARRATION: A segment provides a narrated introduction followed by animation or video.
      • LINKS: Links leading to an on-screen reference appear in a second browser window that covers the related information on the initial screen.
      • A link to audio is indicated by one icon and a link to video is indicated by another icon.
      • TEXT PLACEMENT: All text is placed at the bottom of the screen away from graphics.
      • LEGENDS: Key elements in a graphic are numbered, and a legend at the bottom of the screen includes the name for each numbered element.
    •  
      • Define in your own words the two contiguity principles.
      • Provide two supportive statements that explain how the contiguity principles increase learning.
      • List three examples of violations of the contiguity principles.
      • List three examples of the proper use of contiguity principles.
      • Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
      • Microsoft Clip Art Gallery
      • Clark, R. & Mayer, R. (2008). E-Learning and The Science of Instruction, 2 nd Edition. Pfeiffer.