Planning Profession history and contemporary

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This is the second in a series of 3 presentations to the Bridgton Senior College on April 24th, 2014. This presentation was on the planning profession and how it evolved and what it's like today.

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Planning Profession history and contemporary

  1. 1. Planning Profession Then and Now Anne Krieg, AICP Bridgton Director of Planning, Economic & Community Development
  2. 2. Ancient Planning • Top down approach (though philosophers and mathematicians could weigh in) • Water supply • Military needs
  3. 3. Middle Ages • Church or feudal authority • Villages • Footpaths
  4. 4. Renaissance • Glorifying the ruler or the state • Military • Access
  5. 5. Early Planners • 1682 William Penn – Philadelphia • 1791 Pierre L Enfant – DC plan • 1811 NYC Commissioner’s Plan
  6. 6. Industrial Revolution Planners • James Silk Buckingham – National Evils and Practical Remedies 1849 • John Snow’s Cholera Map 1855 • Georges-Eugene Haussmann 1850-1870’s • Frederick Law Olmsted 1850’s-1880 • Edward Bellamy Looking Backwards 1888 • Camillo Sitte – City Planning According to Artistic Principles 1889 • Societies of Architects and Landscape Architects formed
  7. 7. The Progressive Movement • Design • Recreation • Better Living • City Beautiful
  8. 8. People in the Progressive Movement • Ebenezer Howard Garden Cities of Tomorrow 1902 • McMillan Plan – the best of the best in one room 1902 • Daniel Burnham – Chicago (1909) and San Francisco (1906) • Walter Gropius - Bauhaus movement- 1919 • Patrick Geddes – regional planning
  9. 9. The profession takes hold • National Conference on City Planning (DC) 1909 • Harvard starts courses in planning 1909 – planning program in 1923 • Massachusetts requires planning 1913 • American City Planning Institute 1917 • Regional Planning Association 1923
  10. 10. The Depression • Economic Management • Housing Programs • Natural Resource Planning • Planning Schools become more social science based
  11. 11. Thinkers in Urban Stagnation • Frank Lloyd Wright The Disappearing City 1932 • National Planning Board 1933 • Lewis Mumford film The City 1939 • NY World’s Fair Futurama exhibit 1939
  12. 12. The Profession shifts to federal levels • National Planning Board 1933 • US Resettlement Administration 1938 • US Housing Act 1937 • Farm Security Administration 1937
  13. 13. Other Professional society shifts • American Institute of Planners 1938 • MIT – Masters of City Planning 1935 • Cornell – regional planning 1935 • The Green Bible is written 1941
  14. 14. Post WWII • People spilling from the city into planned towns • Urban Renewal • Influenced by modernism • William Levitt 1950 • Brasilia
  15. 15. Robert Moses You can draw any kind of picture you want on a clean slate and indulge your every whim in the wilderness in laying out a New Delhi, Canberra, or Brasilia, but when you operate in an overbuilt metropolis, you have to hack your way with a meat ax.
  16. 16. Social Activism in Planning • Jane Jacobs The Death and Life of Great American Cities 1961 • Rachel Carson Silent Spring 1962 • Martin Anderson The Federal Bulldozer; a critical analysis of urban renewal 1964 • Ian McHarg Design with Nature 1969
  17. 17. More evolution in planning • Adaptive Reuse – Lawrence Halprin 1962 • Edmund Bacon 1967 Philadelphia planner • Academics in Planning – Kevin Lynch The Image of the City (when we started speaking planner-ese) – Lewis Mumford The City in History… 1961 – TJ Kent 1964 The Urban General Plan
  18. 18. And more Federal Planning • Economic Development Administration 1965 • HUD 1965 • Model Cities Program 1966
  19. 19. Next Gen Planning • Environmental based planning • Marked guilt from urban renewal loss of neighborhoods • Loathing of Suburban Life/Layout
  20. 20. People • Horst, Webber Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning 1973 • Robert Caro The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of NY 1974 • Norman Krumholz – work on equity planning 1982 • Bluestone, Harrison The Deindustrialization of America 1982 • Robert Fishman Bourgeois Utopias: the rise and fall of suburbs 1987 • John Forester Planning in the Face of Power 1989
  21. 21. Profession changes • American Planning Association 1978 • Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) – GIS • National Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established • “star planners” Andre Duany
  22. 22. Millenial Years • Transportation planning • Congress of New Urbanism • Smart Growth • Form Based Codes • Collaborative Planning
  23. 23. Planning Today what hasn’t changed • Built environment – architecture, landscape architecture • Public Health • Social Work • Natural Environment • International Planning (nothing to worry about)
  24. 24. Jack of all trades • Designers • Economists • Environmental managers • Decision theorists • Negotiation experts •Political scientists •Public administration professionals •Lawyers •Engineers
  25. 25. Planning Profession • Not one unifying theory but share basic principles • Advise, not decide • See results 5 to 20 years later • Broadly defined “clients” • Diverse interests
  26. 26. Problem Solving in Planning • As you look at possible solution, the questions change • Not linear decisions, but often options with repercussions • Can only predict outcomes • Can’t test a theory • A problem may be a symptom of another problem
  27. 27. What we sometimes do Crisis mitigation emerge out of series of crises and people’s responses to them health crises (epidemics) social crises (riots, strikes) other crises (fire, flood, etc.) Post 9/11 Post Katrina & Sandy
  28. 28. Me? Community Planning – Transparency – Clarify the interests – Inclusiveness – Truth-seeking – Never forget it’s your community

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