Academic writing: different types of essaysNotes on English for Bachelor and Master Students: Writing
The expository essay *• acquaints the reader with a body of knowledge;• uses facts and statistical information in logical order;• usually provides an analysis based on preliminary research;• provides a wider context by referring to books or articles.• * All the information in this ppt can be found in:• “Academic writing in English. A process-based approach.” , Van Loon, Thüss, Schmidt and Haines, Coutinho, Bussum 2011.
Five common approaches to logicallyorganising information in the body:• Description: a topic is introduced and followed by its attributes.• Sequence: a topic is introduced and followed by details that need to be presented step by step.• Cause/effect: an event or act and its effect are described.• Comparison/contrast: the similarities and differences in two or more things are presented.• Problem/solution: a problem is presented followed by one or more solutions.
Expository essay structure:• Introductory paragraph • General introduction of the topic. • Narrow down to Thesis Statement (final sentence)
Example: • The longest and most severe economical crisis of the twentieth century affected nearly every country in the world. The timing was different in every country, but for the US it all started with the stock market crash in 1929. After this crash, the US car industry was confronted with record low sales which resulted in production loss and massive unemployment.
First body paragraph • Transition/Topic sentence • Supporting details • Concluding sentence • Example: Paragraph topic: Record low sales....
Body paragraph 3 • Transition/ Topic sentence • Supporting details • Concluding sentence • Example: Paragraph topic: Production loss...
Concluding paragraph 5 • Transition/Topic sentence • Restate major points in support of your thesis or summarise key points. Finally, reflect on the topic of your paper from a wider perspective. • Example: The economic crash in 1929 had devastating effects on the car industry. Due to production loss, many car producers had to economise or file for bankruptcy, surrendering their personal investments as well. Employees of those companies lost their jobs. As a result, American society had become disorientated, and a decade of delusion and fear was to follow.
The argumentative essay• The main purpose of an argumentative essay is to persuade the audience to accept a position on an issue.• It should contain a debatable topic and develop a strong thesis statement.• Unlike the expository essay, this essay often deals with opposing points of view.
Introductory paragraph 1 • General introduction of the topic • Narrow down to thesis statement (last sentence) • Example thesis statement: .... The legitimacy of the Security Council is at stake because the UN still reflects the post-WWII international power structure and not that of the 21st century.
Body paragraph • Transition/topic sentence • Counter argument (1/2 sentences). This shows that you recognise that your thesis statement is debatable. • Refutation. This is an opportunity to deconstruct the counter argument to highlight its weakness/es and show that your argument is stronger. • Concluding sentence
• Example: American congressman Joe Smith claims that the current structure should not be changed because it ensures a stable balance of Eastern and Western interests. New rising powers are underrepresented in the current Security Council. Countries such as Brazil and India should have a bigger role in resolving international conflicts.
• Example: The French representative, Roleux, claims that the Security Council reflects the international power relations of most parts of the world. Only South America and West Asia should have additional seats. The Security Council need not be expanded if fewer European countries have a permanent seat, and new emerging powers are given permanent representation.
Concluding paragraph • You may restate the major points in support of your thesis or summarise key points and remind readers of the weaknesses of opposing arguments. • You can end your arguments with a strong last line, such as a quotation or a statement that sums up your argument or places your topic in a wider perspective.
The scientific article• describes the result of the author’s own research;• critically reviews someone else’s research;• develops new theories on the basis of other people’s research.
Scientific articles contain thefollowing elements, based on thescientific method:• abstract• introduction• methodology• result• discussion• conclusion