Ch 6 ac wr in e


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Ch 6 ac wr in e

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Fine-tuningDo task 21 on p. 180 first Academic Language Centre
  2. 2. Fine-tuningThis chapter concentrates on:•The consistency of your line of argument•The support for your claims•The logic behind your arguments•Improving clarity and flow•Writing more concise sentences Academic Language Centre
  3. 3. Supporting claimsEvidence that supports your claims should be:ClearAccurateRelevantCredibleSignificant Academic Language Centre
  4. 4. Critical thinking:Make sure that you clearly distinguish between•facts and opinions•certainties and uncertaintiesboth while you are reading and when you arewriting. Academic Language Centre
  5. 5. Logical fallacies:• Hasty generalisation (jumping to a conclusion, claim based on too little evidence):• Commercials in favour of unhealthy food should be forbidden, because they lead to a consumption-oriented society and subsequently to overweight .• Oversimplification (linking 2 events as if one caused the other directly, whereas the causes may be more complex):• Obesity leads to people becoming depressed.• -------------• Inappropriate appeal to the reader / inappropriate tone• Obesity costs an unnecessary amount of valuable health care time, time that could be better spent on curing other diseases. Academic Language Centre
  6. 6. Relative clauses:There are two types of relative clauses:1.Defining relative clauses, in which theinformation that you give is essential2.Non-defining relative clauses, in which theinformation that you give is extra.Compare:My sister who lives in London is a musician.My sister, who lives in London, is a musician. Academic Language Centre
  7. 7. Relative clauses:• Defining:By 4.30, there was only one painting which /that hadn’t been sold. (essential, no comma)• Non-defining:The train, which was already an hour late, broke down again. (extra, commas used)Do tasks 20, 21, and 22, on pp. 199 - 201 Academic Language Centre
  8. 8. Being concise:Concise: short and clear, expressing what needsto be said without unnecessary words(Advanced Learners’ Dictionary)Typical examples:really, quite, basically, totally, completely.Do task 26, p. 204 Academic Language Centre
  9. 9. Task 26, p. 204The list of instructions – turn phrase into onewordan item that specifically states – delete fillereach and every person – delete fillerwho is accused of a crime – reduce relativeclauseWhen he or she is listening to the proceedings –turn clause into a phrase Academic Language Centre
  10. 10. Task 26, p. 204• The instructions contain an item that states that each person accused of a crime (or: each defendant) should remain seated in the courtroom at all times when listening to the proceedings. Academic Language Centre