Ch 4 ac wr in e


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Ch 4 ac wr in e

  1. 1. Chapter 4 DraftingDo task 2, p 130 Academic Language Centre
  2. 2. Plan argumentative essayTitle: TV Can Be Good for YouTS: Television provides replacement voices that ease loneliness, spark healthful laughter, and even educate young children.A. Television eases loneliness. TV: companion to elderly and reduces confusion and depression (Bondevik and Skogstad, 1998) (Evidence 1: study ) TV reduces feelings of isolation and loneliness (New Zealand study 2005) (Evidence 2: study )B. TV: positive effect on health Effects of laughter on health (e.g. Griffith, 1996) (Background for claim B) Examples of comedy programmes (Evidence for comedy on TV) Laughter inspired by TV as healthful as laughter by live comedy (Laliberte, 2003) (Evidence 1: study ) Academic Language Centre
  3. 3. Essay planC. Television can educate children1. Education television programmes: information at various cognitive levels a. Sesame Street : source of leaning (Illustration supporting claim)1. TV can inspire imaginative play  important for children’s cognitive development (Thakkar et al. 2006) (Evidence : study )D. Harm of TV Violent + anti-social behaviour (e.g. Reeks, 2005) (Anticipation of objection) Children cannot develop language properly by watching TV  need for actual interaction (Pinker, 1998) (Anticipation of objection) TV not an entirely positive force, but not entirely negative force either (Response to objections) Academic Language Centre
  4. 4. Paragraph requirements:A good paragraph is:unified, i.e. it deals with one idea only,represented in the topic sentence (usually the first)well-developed, in that it contains enoughsupport for the main point in the form ofexplanation, clarification, illustrationCoherent, i.e. it is logically organised and easy tofollow (it flows).Do tasks 4, 5, 6a, 7, 11, 12, 13, 14 on pp. 133-142 Academic Language Centre
  5. 5. Paragraph coherence:• Linking words and phrases• Repetition of key words and phrases• Summary words• Use of grammatically parallel constructions• Use of pronouns (he, they, our, this, that, their, etc.), reference words• Predictable paragraph organisation • Topic sentence in first position (80%) • accepted to controversial, general to specific, problem – solution, cause –effect, etc.)• Sentence patterns (given – new)• Punctuation Academic Language Centre
  6. 6. Coherence and summary words:As warm surface waters flow north they cool and getsaltier which makes them denser. This denser water sinksand returns to the south at depth. The Gulf Stream is partof this circulation system. (= summary word).Other examples: phenomenon method(create your own list of summary words while reading) Academic Language Centre
  7. 7. Linking words and phrases• Coordinating conjunctions link two parts of the sentence in a neutral way, without giving extra emphasis to the logical connection between the ideas (and, or, so, but, etc.)• Subordinating conjunctions link an independent clause with a dependent clause or v.v. (if, since, although, etc.)• Conjunctive adverbs make the logical connection between two complete sentences (however, in fact, finally, etc.) Academic Language Centre
  8. 8. Paragraph length• Paragraphs should be approximately the same length• The length of a paragraph depends on the total length of the paper Academic Language Centre
  9. 9. Concluding paragraph:• Organisation is the opposite of the introductory paragraph: specific to general• Relates back to the thesis statement• Summarises the main arguments without repeating phrases and sentences• Offers recommendations, shows the wider relevance or implications• Do tasks 28 and 29 on pp. 154-7 Academic Language Centre