The Role of intelligence in national security


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  • Why choosing intelligence in National Security ? To look like 007 ?
  • Example: Moses ordered spies into Canaan to see whether or not the Israelites could occupy it. The Chinese General Sun Tzu (500 BC) devoted the last chapter of his book ‘The Art of war’ to the role of spies.
  • Even the use of spies is very famous, a general theory of intelligence can be drawn by cybernetics developed in 1947 by Norbert Weiner . Cybernetics is also an unifying theory that runs through all levels of human interaction. This theory assumes that the intelligence process deals with the flow of information.
  • In most military agencies there are military intelligence units supplying information to commanders. Sometimes, agencies specifically charged with: anti-terrorism, development, operation and exploitation of satellite and overhead imagery, counterintelligence, border protection…
  • Three advances are particularly noteworthy: The development of wire-based electronic communications The development of wireless electronic communications The development of the aeroplane In the twentieth century, the major powers were conducting surveillance by the use of aircraft, satellites and (twenty- first century) by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)
  • The intelligence process also called the intelligence cycle begins with the need to know about other states or other global actors involved in world affairs whose actions might endanger on the security of their state. The requested information may be about missile characteristics, WMD, type of weapons, foreign commitments … 2 types of need-to-know: empirical and observable development and intentions.
  • Example : VERONA Project (1942 – 1949) revealed vast Soviet Penetration into the American, Britain, West German, French and Australian governments.  The decrypted messages were being working between 2 and 5 years after they were intercepted.
  • Failed operations become public and written by journalists instead of successful operations remain secret for many years Some operations are benign but others violate the UN requirement not to interfere with the political independence of other states. While CA gets huge press attention, it actually involves a relatively small percentage of the time and money of all intelligence agencies. The CIA which conduct CA has less than 5% of its personnel involved in CA and spends well over 90% of its budget on normal collection and analysis efforts. Cinema romanticize a topic that not deserve to be romanticized. Soviet intelligence agencies killed political émigrés. (ex: Leon Trotsky in Mexico) Israeli intelligence agents tracked and killed most of the PLO group that attacked Israel athletes in the 1972 Olympics in Munich. They also killed an innocent person in Norway in 1974. Combination image shows the changing face of Ukraine’s opposition leader July and November 2004.
  • Those who try to justify CA argue that it fills a gap between diplomacy and war. The desired goal of CA must be essential for the national security The proposed CA must be feasible. CA is the easiest option and the best one. Need the written approval of senior officials The degree of force must be commensurate with the nature of the threat Even it is done in secret, CA must be able to stand the light of public awareness eventually
  • Alexandre Litvinenko, ex FSB spy (from KGB)
  • The Role of intelligence in national security

    1. 2. The Role of Intelligence in National Security
    2. 3. Introduction Definition Intelligence services of different nations Intelligence collection disciplines The Intelligence Process Legal and Ethical issues involving intelligence Covert action Videos and bibliography Conclusion SUMMARY
    3. 4. <ul><li>Security is a fundamental goal of all states in contemporary world affairs. To support that search for security, all states collect intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>The significance of intelligence has been recognized for centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>The information available and the means to collect and analyze it, has changed dramatically in the Information Age… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) What is intelligence ? What does it serve ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) What are the disciplines of intelligence ? How does it work ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) What is the contemporary security condition ? What about terrorism ? </li></ul></ul></ul>FOCUS ON… INTRODUCTION
    4. 5. DEFINITION The terms intelligence refers to the collection, analysis, production, and utilisation of information about potentially hostile states, groups, individuals, or activities.
    5. 7. Intelligence COLLECTION disciplines (1) <ul><li>There are two main types of disciplines: </li></ul><ul><li>Human intelligence collection or humint </li></ul><ul><li>Technical intelligence collection or techint </li></ul><ul><li>HUMINT </li></ul><ul><li>The use of spies is the oldest such </li></ul><ul><li>discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>The methods used by these spies </li></ul><ul><li>have changed over the centuries but </li></ul><ul><li>the goal has always been the same: </li></ul><ul><li>to gain advantage over an opponent </li></ul><ul><li>by accessing his secrets , usually </li></ul><ul><li>through stealthy observation or by </li></ul><ul><li>intercepting written messages carried </li></ul><ul><li>by couriers. </li></ul> Representation of spies FOCUS ON…
    6. 8. 2. TECHINT Until the Second World War, technical intelligence referred to intelligence regarding an enemy’s weapons systems. Today the term is used to describe virtually all intelligence collected through technical means. Techint developed in response to scientific advances in electronic communications. Intelligence COLLECTION disciplines (2) FOCUS ON…  Afghanistan imagery intelligence
    7. 9. 3. OTHERS DISCIPLINES Intelligence COLLECTION disciplines (3)
    8. 10. <ul><li>Prioritization stage : which intelligence disciplines will be used to collect information </li></ul><ul><li>Collection stage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Material in foreign languages needs to be translated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photograph must be interpreted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coded communication need to be decoded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysis stage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All collected and processed information are analyzed into historical context and analysts try to separate the valid information from the disinformation. (raw or unfinished intelligence) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production stage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis is put into some finished form and sent to decisions makers as an intelligence product (ex: intelligence estimates) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Final stage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a dissemination or delivery of information by medias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At this stage, intelligence theoretically adds value to the decision making process. </li></ul></ul>The Intelligence PROCESS (1) 1. STAGE
    9. 11. 2. INTELLIGENCE FAILURES <ul><li>Intelligence failures may occur in every stages of the intelligence process : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when decision makers do not know which questions to ask to the units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when a bad evaluation occur at the prioritization stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>during the processing and collecting stages (ex: spy planes may be shot down, intelligence agents may be caught…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when analysts emphasize an unimportant data or ignore an important one. </li></ul></ul>The Intelligence PROCESS (2)
    10. 12. LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES INVOLVING INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>The ubiquity of intelligence activities suggest that nations do not consider it to be in violation of their own domestic law to support such activities. </li></ul><ul><li>International law is largely silent on the legality of intelligence and do not interfere at all to protect sovereignty of other nations. </li></ul><ul><li>The laws of all nations prohibit their own citizens from revealing state secrets to other nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually discussions of the ethics of intelligence collection deal with 2 mains aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ends justify the means… but how far do they go ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The respect of the citizens of each countries. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 13. COVERT ACTION OR SPECIALS ACTIVITIES (1) <ul><li>Covert Action (CA), or Special Activities refers to activities carried out by one state to alter politic or economic developments in another state while disguising the source of that influence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: CIA attempts to assassination of Fidel Castro in the mid-1960s but they failed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CA operations may support groups involved in civil conflicts, secretly provide weapons, lead “coup d’état” or even attempt assassinations . </li></ul><ul><li>Most covert action assassinations in the 20th century was led by Soviet and Israeli intelligence agencies. </li></ul>Who poisoned Yushchenko ? Covert Actions ?
    12. 14. CAN COVERT ACTION BE JUSTIFIED ? (2) <ul><li>To justify covert actions and make it more ethically acceptable, </li></ul><ul><li>there are 2 main theories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The gap theory of Covert Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles from Just War Theory (evaluation of the ethicality of CA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Essentiality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Feasibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Last resort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Legitimacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Commensurability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Popular support </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 15. Alexandre Litvinenko, ex-FSB spy was poisoned with thallium on the november, 1st, 2006.
    14. 16. <ul><li>Intelligence is a way like another to compete with the balance of power in a less “violent” way. </li></ul><ul><li>Cinema romanticize intelligence and especially Covert Actions that not deserve to be romanticized. And usually, the spies’ life are far away from what you can see on TV. </li></ul><ul><li>More and more, the basic defence trade is replaced by more diplomatic or “vicious” ways like intelligence. (use of videos camera in streets, web spyiers…) </li></ul><ul><li>h ow far would they go on behalf of security ? </li></ul><ul><li>a nd what about our individual freedom ? </li></ul>CONCLUSION
    15. 17. <ul><li>VIDEOS: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// =rEOecRtBU7U  conspiracy 9/11 </li></ul><ul><li>http:// =9QYZBMIBOck  propaganda against CIA part 1 </li></ul><ul><li>http:// =kKq6L9U3hTw&mode= related&search  propaganda against CIA part 2 </li></ul><ul><li>http:// =kKq6L9U3hTw&mode= related&search  The enemy agent and You – Counterespionage film 1960’s </li></ul>
    16. 18. BIBLIOGRAPHY <ul><li>BOOK </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary security studies, Alan Collins </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNET RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>