The Greater Antilles


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The Greater Antilles

  1. 1. Regional Report - Greater Antilles - Geneva - Switzerland - November 2007 :: THE DEMOGRAPHY REPORT :: The Region population of 29% in 20 years. Haiti will increase also its population of 32% in 20 The Caribbean is a region mostly composed years. of islands and located southeast of North America, east of Central America and to the And Porto Rico and Jamaica will increase north and west of South America. It is also their populations of 10 and 8%, respectively. surrounded by the Atlantic and the Caribbean Generally, the West Indies population is quite Sea. young. The area comprises more than 7,000 islands, Working age Population Snap-shot islets, reefs and cays. West Indies is not Working Age Population Expected change Caribbean which includes not only West UN Medium variant forecasts 2005-2025 Indies such as Greater Antilles and Lesser (Age group 15-64 years in millions) Antilles but also, all the surrounded cost 2005 2025 in mil. in % areas of Colombia, Venezuela and the Cuba 7.90 7.59 -0.32 -4% Guyanas. Dominican Rep. 5.62 7.45 1.83 33% Haiti 5.38 7.87 1.83 34% Puerto rico 2.59 2.74 2.55 98% Jamaica 1.63 1.89 1.90 116% Total 23.12 27.54 7.79 34% Source: UN Population Division, 2004 Revision In 2005, Cuba has an important number of adults (40 years old) but in addition and according to UN forecast, its population would not change at all in 20 years, which Source: Wikipedia means that Cuba will probably have an Geopolitically, the West Indies are organised increasing rate of retired people. into 28 territories including sovereign states, Porto Rico is an interesting example as its overseas departments and dependencies. population rate will increase of only 10% The Greater Antilles are composed with while its working age population is expected Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola which is Haiti and to increase of 98%. It means that Porto Rico Dominican Republic will be able to provide for the retired population needs. Population snap-shot 2005-2025 Dependency ratio Percentage Change in the Dependency According to UN forecasts, we can evaluate ratio more or less the expected change of the 2005 2025 2005 - 2025 population from Greater Antilles. Cuba 42% 48% 13.16% Total Population Expected change Dominican Rep. 69% 63% -7.58% UN Medium variant forecasts 2005-2025 Haiti 73% 56% -22.53% (In millions) Puerto rico 52% 58% 10.51% 2005 2025 in mil. in % Jamaica 64% 54% -16.28% Cuba 11.26 11.23 -0.03 0% Total -5% Dominican Rep. 9.47 12.17 2.70 29% Source: UN Population Division, 2004 Revision Haiti 9.30 12.31 3.01 32% Puerto rico 3.95 4.33 0.38 10% Jamaica 2.68 2.91 0.23 8% Total 36.66 42.94 6.29 17% Source: UN Population Division, 2004 Revision Cuba s population will not change at all or will decrease a little bit which is not a big variation. Dominican Republic will increase its Created By Anne-Laure Sellem Page 1 Comments are welcome:
  2. 2. Regional Report - Greater Antilles - Geneva - Switzerland - November 2007 Dependency ratio for Cuba, Dominican Rep., Haiti, Porto Rico and Jamaica respectively, Haiti Population Structure in 2005 Haiti has one of the highest percentage of Percentage changes in Support Ratio young people in the world 2005 - 2025 Jamaica Puerto rico Haiti Dominican Rep. Cuba -30.00% -20.00% -10.00% 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% Source: UN Population Division, 2004 Revision Source: Wikipedia Cuba Population Structure in 2005 Spoken Languages The spoken languages in the Greater Antilles are: Spanish in Cuba, Dominican Republic and Porto Rico, English in Jamaica and also in Porto Rico (which has a Commonwealth status) Haitian Creole and French in Haiti. But most islands in Caribbean use also their Creole which is a mix between the 3 official Source: Wikipedia languages. Jamaica Population Structure in Ethnic structure 2005 People from West Indies are called West Jamaica is a very young country such as its Indians. The diversity of West Indians Greater Antilles neighbours! depends on the island and its history. But most of them have the same identity face to the colonialism period. Actually, the triangular trade, which is a trade between Europe, Africa and Americas is sparked off the numerous Afro-caribbean people in West Indies who came from Africa about 400 years ago. Even, they are also White people from Europe who came in Caribbean in the beginning of the colonialism period that we call Creoles (békés in French Creole) and the Indo-Caribbean who have roots from Source: Wikipedia India. Created By Anne-Laure Sellem Page 2 Comments are welcome:
  3. 3. Regional Report - Greater Antilles - Geneva - Switzerland - November 2007 Before the discovery, the West Indians were Migration management system Arawaks and Caribs which are Amerindians people from the North of South-America but all of them were decimated by the Colons. Migrants Number of % of total population by migrants number During the slavery, Europeans merchants regions and in the (thousands) migrants swapped textiles and jewels for slaves from world (2000) Africa. Once the slave ship (négrier) reached Europe 56'100 32.10% the New World, the slaves were sold for a Asia 49'781 28.48% good profit and worked in sugar canne, North America 40'844 23.37% tobacco and cotton plantations mostly. Africa 16'277 9.31% Latin America/ Caribbean 5'944 3.40% Oceania 5'835 3.34% Total 174'781 100.00% Source: international Migration Report 2002, United Nations (Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Populations Division) Migration management system Between 50 000 and 80 000 Cubans emigrate illegally to the United States each year Transnational issues Source: Wikipedia Ethnics in Cuba As % of total JAMAICA: Transshipment point for cocaine population from South America to North America and Europe. Mulatto / Mestizo 51% White 37% CUBA: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay Black 11% is leased to US; established the death Chinese 1% penalty for certain drug-related crimes in 1999 Religious structure HAITI: 8,000 peacekeepers from the UN in They are many religions in Caribbean but Haiti maintain civil order in Haiti most West Indians are Christian sometimes DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Transshipment influenced by syncretism and animism. point for ecstasy from the Netherlands and (Catholicism, Protestantism) Belgium to the USA and Canada We can also find some religions such as Source: CIA The World Factbook Judaism, Islam, Hinduism and many sects or beliefs like Rastafarianism, or African beliefs Trafficking and illegal immigrants such as Voodoo (in Haiti), Santéria (in Cuba). CUBA: sexual exploitation and forced child Jamaica has the highest number of churches labor per km² in the world! HAITI: Haitians cross into the Dominican Religions in Total % Republic Caribbean Number PORTO RICO: increasing numbers of illegal Catholicism 14'102'041 59.25% Protestantism 5'912'490 24.84% migrants from the Dominican Republic cross Other 3'487'828 14.65% the Mona Passage to Puerto Rico Hinduism 279'515 1.17% Islam 15'860 0.07% Source: CIA The World Factbook Judaism 1'888 0.01% 23'799'622 Source: Created By Anne-Laure Sellem Page 3 Comments are welcome:
  4. 4. Regional Report - Greater Antilles - Geneva - Switzerland - November 2007 :: THE CONNECTIVITY REPORT :: Transport Airports Cuba - Port Cities Name of primary airports Roads and Highways Camagüey Ignacio Agramonte Intern. Cuba: 60,858 km including 638 km of Cayo Coco Cayo Coco Cayo Largo del Sur Vilo Acuña expressway Cienfuegos Jaime González Havana José Martí Intern. The main highways are Central Highway, the Via Blanca and Via Azul used by 2 mains Haiti - Port Cities Name of primary airports buses companies: Viazul and Astro Bus. Cap-Haïtien Cap-Haitien Intern. Port-au-Prince Toussaint Louverture Intern. Jamaica: 18,700 km of highways Jamaica - Port Cities Name of primary airports Dominican Republic: 12,600 km Kingston Norman Manley Intern. Montego Bay Sangster Intern. Haiti: 4,160 km Puerto Rico - Port Porto Rico: 25,735 km Name of primary airports Cities Aguadilla Rafael Hernández Railsways Fajardo Diego Jiménez Torres Antonio Rivera Rodríguez Isla de Vieques (Vieques Airport) Ponce Mercedita Fernando Luis Ribas Dominicci San Juan (Isla Grande Airport) San Juan Luis Muñoz Marín (Intern.) Dominican Rep - Port Name of primary airports Cities Barahona María Montez Intern. La Romana La Romana Intern. Cuba: (11,968 km) Public transport in Cuba Punta Cana / Higüey Punta Cana Intern. Las Américas-JFPG Intern. (Dr. is usually second hand vehicles like the Santo Domingo José Fco. Peña Gómez) famous Tren Francés between Havana and Samaná Arroyo Barril Intern. Samaná (Sánchez) Samaná El Catey Intern. Santiago de Cuba. Puerto Plata Gregorio Luperón Intern. Cibao Intern. (Santiago Jamaica: 370 km Santiago Municipal) La Isabela Intern (Dr. Joaquín Dominican Republic: 517 km Santo Domingo Balaguer) Haiti: no railway Sources of the tables: Wikipedia Porto Rico: 96 km Trade Ports and Inlands waterways Cuba: has a quite important merchant marine Cuba: 240 km of waterways servicing 7 ports with 13 ships such as bulk carriers (3), cargo such as Cienfuegos, Havana, Manzanillo, ships (4), gas carrying tankers (1), petroleum Mariel, Matanzas, Nuevitas, Santiago de tanker (3), refrigerated cargo ships (2) Cuba. Jamaica: one petroleum tanker Jamaica: Kingston, Port Esquivel, Port Source: CIA World Factbook Kaiser, Port Rhoades, Rocky Point Cross-border consumption Dominican Republic: Boca Chica, Puerto Plata, Rio Haina, Santo Domingo Communication Haiti: Cap-Haitien There are several fiber optic cables in Porto Rico: Las Mareas, Mayaguez, San Caribbean which link not only the islands but Juan also certain countries of Central America. Created By Anne-Laure Sellem Page 4 Comments are welcome:
  5. 5. Regional Report - Greater Antilles - Geneva - Switzerland - November 2007 Haiti: 4VMR 10, Tele Timoun 11, TBN 16, ainsi que des stations régionales comme tele 7 31 dans certaines régions d Haiti. Jamaica : Love TV, TV J, CVM TV (Kingston et autres regions) Porto Rico: WKAQ 2 operated by NBC Universal, WAPA TV, WIPR TV educational channel, WSTE, Univisión Puerto Rico Dominican Republic: Antena 21, Corporación Estatal de Radio y Televisión (CERTV), Tele Antillas (Santo Dominico) Energy and water Cuba: 95% of the population is connected to the National Electric Grid and to assist rural areas, 200 rural schools are provided with Source: solar panels. Jamaica: depends on petroleum imports (80,000 barrels per day) from Mexico and Venezuela to satisfy its national energy needs. Dominican Republic: electricity production: 15.02 billion kWh (2004) Haiti: electricity production: 536.2 million kWh (2004) Porto Rico: electricity production: 24.14 billion kWh (2004) Border towns No border towns Source: Jamaica has a fully digital telephone communication system with a mobile penetration of over 95%. Main telecommunications companies: From Jamaica: Digicel (mobile network wich provides 22 islands in Caribbean), Cable and Wireless (British communications provides Mobile services, landline, Internet), Flow Jamaica (which laid submarine cable connecting Jamaica to the USA) Main televisions stations: Cuba: Cubavisión, canal educativo, canal habana, tele rebelde. The USA has a television station to serve the troops in Guantanamo Bay: NBW8 Created By Anne-Laure Sellem Page 5 Comments are welcome:
  6. 6. Regional Report - Greater Antilles - Geneva - Switzerland - November 2007 :: THE ECONOMY REPORT :: GDP and PPP Unemployment rate: 1.9% NGDPD : Gross domestic product, constant Change Agriculture products: Sugar, tobacco, prices, in Billion U.S. dollars 2001-2006 citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans; livestock 2001 2006 in % Industries: Sugar, petroleum, tobacco, Cuba construction, nickel, steel, cement, #DIV/0! Jamaica 7.89 10.57 34% agricultural machinery, pharmaceuticals Haiti 3.42 4.47 31% Exchange rates: Convertible pesos per US Domican Republic 21.94 31.60 44% dollar - 0.9231 (2006) Porto Rico #DIV/0! Total 33.25 46.64 40% JAMAICA: Source: FMI World Economic Outlook 2007 The Jamaican economy is heavily dependent The national GDP of most Greater Antilles on services, which now account for more have increased during the last 6 years. than 60% of GDP. PPPWGT : Gross domestic product based on Change GDP by sector: purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of 2001-2006 country GDP - agriculture: 5.4% 2001 2006 in % - industry: 33.8% Cuba #DIV/0! - services: 60.8% Jamaica 9.72 11.98 23% Haiti 13.74 15.55 13% Unemployment rate: 11.3% Domican Republic 56.07 76.57 37% Agriculture products: Sugarcane, bananas, Porto Rico #DIV/0! coffee, citrus, yams, ackees, vegetables; Total 79.53 104.11 31% poultry, goats, milk; crustaceans, mollusks Source: FMI World Economic Outlook 2007 Industries: tourism, bauxite/alumina, agro Percentage growth 2001-2006 GDP PPP processing, light manufactures, rum, cement, Cuba #DIV/0! #DIV/0! metal, paper, chemical products, Jamaica 34% 23% telecommunications Haiti 31% 13% Exchange rates: Jamaican dollars per US Domican Republic 44% 37% Porto Rico #DIV/0! #DIV/0! dollar - 65.768 (2006) Average #DIV/0! #DIV/0! Source: FMI World Economic Outlook 2007 HAITI: 50% Haiti is the poorest country in the Western 45% Hemisphere, with 80% of the population living 40% 35% under the poverty line and 54% in abject 30% GDP poverty. 25% PPP 20% 15% GDP by sector: 10% 5% -agriculture:28% 0% -industry:20% Cuba Jamaica Haiti Domican Porto Rico Republic - services: 52% Unemployment rate: more than two-thirds of Basic indicators the labor force does not have formal jobs CUBA: Agriculture products: coffee, mangoes, GDP by sector: sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood - agriculture: 4% Industries: sugar refining, flour milling, - industry: 24.8% textiles, cement, light assembly based on - services: 71.2% imported parts Created By Anne-Laure Sellem Page 6 Comments are welcome:
  7. 7. Regional Report - Greater Antilles - Geneva - Switzerland - November 2007 Exchange rates: gourdes per US dollar - PORTO RICO: 40.232 (2006) Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the Caribbean region. DOMINICAN REPUBLICAN: GDP by sector: GDP by sector: -agriculture:1% -industry:45% -agriculture:11.6% - services: 54% -industry:28.6% - services: 59.8% Unemployment rate: 12% Unemployment rate: 16% Agriculture products: sugarcane, coffee, pineapples, plantains, bananas; livestock Agriculture products: sugarcane, coffee, products, chickens cotton, cocoa, tobacco, rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, Industries: pharmaceuticals, electronics, beef, eggs apparel, food products, tourism Industries: tourism, sugar processing, Exchange rates: the US dollar is used ferronickel and gold mining, textiles, cement, Source: CIA the World Factbook tobacco Exchange rates: Dominican pesos per US dollar - 33.406 (2006) :: THE POLITICS REPORT :: Members of International Organizations ACP: African, Caribbean and Pacific group of states Federation of the West Indies (1958 1962) which had been replaced by CARIFTA CARIFTA: Caribbean Free Trade Association Caribbean Community (CARICOM) replaced the CARIFTA Association of Caribbean States (25 members) ----- The Organization of American States (OAS) included 35 members. The current government of Cuba is excluded from participation in the Organization under a decision adopted on1962. The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC or ECLAC) encourages economic cooperation among its member states. Created By Anne-Laure Sellem Page 7 Comments are welcome:
  8. 8. Regional Report - Greater Antilles - Geneva - Switzerland - November 2007 Global Institutions Cuba (1995), The Dominican Republic (1995), Jamaica (1995) and Haiti (1996) are members of WTO. The Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Haiti are members of World Bank. Cuba is not a member. CARICOM : Caribbean Community and Common Market (Barbados, Guyana, The Dominican Republic is a member Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobbago) has a of : bilateral free trade agreement with Cuba and the Dominican Republic. International Bank for reconstruction and development (IBRD) Bilateral agreement: International Development association (IDA) The Dominican Republic has bilateral International finance Cooperation (IFC) agreements with Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua. The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) The CAFTA US is a bilateral free trade agreement between the Dominican Republic Haiti is a member of: and the US. International Bank for reconstruction and Proposed regional agreement: development (IBRD) People's Trade Treaty in negociations International Development association (IDA) between Cuba, Venezuela and Bolivia International finance Cooperation (IFC) CARICOM in negotiations with Canada The Multilateral Investment Guarantee CARICOM in negotiations with EU to create Agency (MIGA) the EPA (Economic Parternship Agreement) Jamaica is a member of: Regional institutions International Bank for reconstruction and The Association of Caribbean States development (IBRD) (ACS) includes Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Jamaica, excepted Porto Rico. International finance Cooperation (IFC) The Caribbean Development Bank is a The Multilateral Investment Guarantee financial institution which assists Caribbean Agency (MIGA) nations in financing social and economic International Centre for Settlements of programs in its member countries (includes Investments Disputes (ICSID) Jamaica and Haiti) The Caribbean Disaster Emergency Regional agreements: Response Agency (CDERA) is an inter- regional network of independent emergency ACP (Africa Caribbean Pacific) includes the units and includes Jamaica and other countries of the Lomé Convention from Caribbean islands. African, Caribbean, Pacific excepted Porto Rico. The Caribbean Examinations Council or CXC. The Dominican Republic Central America Free Trade Agreement, commonly called Porto Rico Status DR-CAFTA, is a free trade agreement. Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is a self governing territory of the US with Commonwealth status Created By Anne-Laure Sellem Page 8 Comments are welcome:
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