Crowdsourcing is a neologism for the act of taking a task traditionally performed by an employee or contractor, and outsourcing it to an undefined, generally large group of people or community in the form of an open call. The trend of leveraging the mass collaboration enabled by Web 2.0 technologies to achieve business goals. However, both the term and its underlying business models have attracted controversy and criticism.
CROWDSOURCING, SOCIAL MEDIA, PRIVACY.
Google’s answers to privacy: Transparency, Choice, Control
No difference between online and offline. Especially in social media. Friendships are mediated.
we are at the middle. distributed. we are everywhere.
Social media is connected. lots of media is connected. connectiviteit heeft ook te maken met de openheid.
A walled garden is meant to be a safe haven
A walled garden has
-entrances and exits -there are keepers with a gardener's mentality: content tending, no weeds, no dog droppings, no trash - control is at the gate, security, surveillance, gatekeeping
Thinking widgets, APIs, etc. where are the gates, the content reaches out to you, the walled gardens of the Web have other walls and politics of exclusivity.
walled gardens, gebruikers afsluiten voor naar buiten stromen data. het geeft een gevoel van privacy.maar binnen de sites zoals facebook krijg je meer te horen dan je wil “x is now single” - Facebook Beacon.
This “friending” within social networking sites is one of its main characteristics and is often perceived to be part of a private sphere. In contrast, for many people, Google is a public sphere. Most social networking sites are not being indexed by Google, except for Twitter if you would (convincingly) argue it is a SNS.
1. Persistence. What you say sticks around. This is great for asynchronicity, not so great when everything you've ever said has gone down on your permanent record. The bits-wise nature of social media means that a great deal of content produced through social media is persistent by default.
2. Replicability. You can copy and paste a conversation from one medium to another, adding to the persistent nature of it. This is great for being able to share information, but it is also at the crux of rumor-spreading. Worse: while you can replicate a conversation, it's much easier to alter what's been said than to confirm that it's an accurate portrayal of the original conversation.
3. Searchability. My mother would've loved to scream search into the air and figure out where I'd run off with friends. She couldn't; I'm quite thankful. But with social media, it's quite easy to track someone down or to find someone as a result of searching for content. Search changes the landscape, making information available at our fingertips. This is great in some circumstances, but when trying to avoid those who hold power over you, it may be less than ideal.
4. Scalability. Social media scales things in new ways. Conversations that were intended for just a friend or two might spiral out of control and scale to the entire school or, if it is especially embarrassing, the whole world. Of course, just because something can scale doesn't mean that it will. Politicians and marketers have learned this one the hard way.
5. (de)locatability. With the mobile, you are dislocated from any particular point in space, but at the same time, location-based technologies make location much more relevant. This paradox means that we are simultaneously more and less connected to physical space.
Those five properties are intertwined, but their implications have to do with the ways in which they alter social dynamics. Let's look at three different dynamics that have been reconfigured as a result of social media.
1. Invisible Audiences. We are used to being able to assess the people around us when we're speaking. We adjust what we're saying to account for the audience. Social media introduces all sorts of invisible audiences. There are lurkers who are present at the moment but whom we cannot see, but there are also visitors who access our content at a later date or in a different environment than where we first produced them. As a result, we are having to present ourselves and communicate without fully understanding the potential or actual audience. The potential invisible audiences can be stifling. Of course, there's plenty of room to put your head in the sand and pretend like those people don't really exist.
2. Collapsed Contexts. Connected to this is the collapsing of contexts. In choosing what to say when, we account for both the audience and the context more generally. Some behaviors are appropriate in one context but not another, in front of one audience but not others. Social media brings all of these contexts crashing into one another and it's often difficult to figure out what's appropriate, let alone what can be understood.
3. Blurring of Public and Private. Finally, there's the blurring of public and private. These distinctions are normally structured around audience and context with certain places or conversations being \"public\" or \"private.\" These distinctions are much harder to manage when you have to contend with the shifts in how the environment is organized.
All of this means that we're forced to contend with a society in which things are being truly reconfigured. So what does this mean? As we are already starting to see, this creates all new questions about context and privacy, about our relationship to space and to the people around us.
rise of the search engines - rise of the blogosphere and later social web. now also the real time web: twitter, x is now friends with y = facebook This “friending” within social networking sites is one of its main characteristics and is often perceived to be part of a private sphere. In contrast, for many people, Google is a public sphere. Most social networking sites are not being indexed by Google, except for Twitter if you would (convincingly) argue it is a SNS.
The idea is that every search entry with an Internet search engine contributes to a pattern that can be analyzed and used for prediction. Each search, he notes, offers a hint of what an individual wants to accomplish -- an itch to scratch, a problem to solve, a desire to fulfill.
Web searches are \"a place holder for the intentions of humankind — a massive database of desires, needs, wants, and likes that can be discovered, subpoenaed, archived, tracked, and exploited to all sorts of ends...Such a beast has never before existed in the history of culture, but is almost guaranteed to grow exponentially from this day forward.\"
some people love to provide info. now individual, could be turned into group. may be used for marketing.
Google Gets Into Behavioral Targeting, Launches “Interest-Based Advertising” Beta From keywords to types of sites you visit. “These ads will associate categories of interest — say sports, gardening, cars, pets — with your browser, based on the types of sites you visit and the pages you view. We may then use those interest categories to show you more relevant text and display ads.”
awareness of indexing = why i have a closed account. it will always be in google. persistance of social media/search engines.
Anne Helmond, University of Amsterdam
Social Secrets graduate workshop, The Hogeschool van Amsterdam, University of Applied Sciences (HvA), 20 March 2009.
photo by Flickr user: doobybrai
privacy = opt out
If you prefer not to receive this type of interest-based advertising, you can
always opt out by clicking the quot;Opt outquot; button on the homepage of the Ads
Preferences Manager. After you opt out, Google will not collect interest
category information and you will not receive interest-based ads. You will see
the same number of ads as before, but they may not be as relevant.
Jonathan Harris: The Web's secret stories:
The Database of Intentions. November 13, 2003 by John Battelle
boyd, danah. 2009. quot;Social Media is Here to Stay... Now What?quot;
Microsoft Research Tech Fest, Redmond, Washington, February