COSC111 - Plagiarism and Citation

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  • There is so much information out there. You can find anything on the internet and it’s not attributed to anyone.Ask the students to first write down then discuss their thoughts on the quote and plagiarism. Why don’t people seem to think it’s that bad to copy someone? What about downloading music? How does this relate to math?
  • There is so much information out there. You can find anything on the internet and it’s not attributed to anyone.Ask the students to first write down then discuss their thoughts on the quote and plagiarism. Why don’t people seem to think it’s that bad to copy someone? What about downloading music? How does this relate to math?
  • There is so much information out there. You can find anything on the internet and it’s not attributed to anyone.Ask the students to first write down then discuss their thoughts on the quote and plagiarism. Why don’t people seem to think it’s that bad to copy someone? What about downloading music? How does this relate to math?
  • Not only is this a topic that is discussed in the “real world” but it is also an important issue on campus.Emphasizing the professor’s approach to plagiarism, while also pointing out that this is of concern to the entire TU/academic community.We now have a system where if a student is sanctioned for plagiarism by a professor, that is not the end of the matter. The professor can report the student centrally. If there is a “strike 2” the student has to go before Judicial Affairs and face further consequences: the student may be suspended from TU.Bob Giordani: 100 cases a year reported. (Imagine how many go unreported!)1-3 repeat offenders a year. These go to Judicial Affairs for penalties up to and including suspension from TU.There has been about one suspension each year.
  • Also just helps you stay organized
  • Example A is plagiarized. Problems:Word-for-word from the source, without quotation marks.No in-text (parenthetical) citation to Hearst.Citing in Works Cited at end of paper is not enough—we need to know which specific information/idea/text/graphic etc. came from where as we are reading.To fix: Legitmate paraphrase (rewording) of source + in-text citation (keep citation on Works Cited list as well).OR Use quotation marks to show what is an exact quote (when omitting words from quote, use ellipsis (…)+ in-text citation+ keep entry in Works Cited list at end of paper.
  • Example B is plagiarized. This is an example of paraphrase plagiarism.Many student are not aware that this is plagiarism, but it can get you in trouble!!Problems:Student paper follows original source too closely. Rewording is light; sentences follow identical structure as source. In-text citation to Burrowsdoes not solve this—in doing so we acknowledge Burrows’ idea, but not his wording, which this passage exploits.To fix this:If the phrasing of the source merits this, QUOTE exact words used, using quotation marks+ keep the in-text citation to Burrows+ keep the entry in Works Cited list.How many words in a row are ok to keep?You may hear “rules of thumb” such as the “three word rule”: quote and cite if you are using more than three words in a row from the source. There is no hard-and-fast rule. Three, two, or even one word might be distinctive enough to be quoted and cited, depending on the context.For instance, Ed Tenner wrote of the “plagiosphere” in Technology Review.This word, coined by Tenner, refers to the notion that everything has been said and is out there somewhere on the World Wide Web. (Interesting article by the way!)If I were to write about this concept and to use the word, I would want to cite Tenner. Otherwise, it would appear that I myself had made up the word and the concept it represents. The first time I used the word “plagiosphere” I could put it in quotes, add an in-text citation, and include a works cited entry at the end of my paper. Additional uses of the word in the paper would not need to be quoted, but if I used ideas from Tenner’s articles, those would require in-text citations in the body of the paper.
  • The rewording in the Student Paper for Example C is fine--see how different the words and sentences are from the original source. Paraphrasing can work!BUT in neglecting to add an in-text citation, this went over the line to IDEA PLAGIARISM. If Burrows is in the Works Cited list, this doesn’t let the writer off the hook. How is the reader to know where the individual idea comes from if the writer doesn’t include a proper in-text citation?To fix: in-text citation + keep in Works Cited list.
  • Example D is fine—NOT plagiarized. Hooray.Very few words shared—not a problem.When the writer wanted to quote, quotation marks used appropriately.The in-text citation appears at the end—directing us to the Works Cited.That wasn’t so bad, was it?
  • If you use an online source without permanent page numbers (that is, anything other than a PDF), count off your paragraphs and use that in place of a page number. (Smith, para. 5 = Smith, paragraph 5. Smith 35 means page 35 of Smith).
  • First is a screenshot of how the article looks from the results list of an Ebsco database (Business Source Premier in this case).Below are examples of how in-text citations to this article can be integrated.
  • Don’t forget the works cited entry at the end of the paper! Here’s an example for the same article.Don’t copy & paste the info straight from a database into your References list—you can see it looks quite different in MLA!If you can, consult the PDF copy instead of the HTML copy, you would be able to include the exact page range and to cite specific pages (rather than paragraphs) in your in-text citations.
  • COSC111 - Plagiarism and Citation

    1. 1. COSC 111 : Plagiarism andProper CitationLaksamee Putnam – Research & InstructionLibrarian
    2. 2. First… Laksamee Putnam lputnam@towson.edu Cook Library Reference: ◦ 410.704.2462. ◦ IM/email Phone: 410.704.3746. Twitter: @CookLibraryofTU Albert S. Cook facebook profile
    3. 3. On the side…
    4. 4. Agenda Define plagiarism Real world examples and discussion Towson Policy – Academic Integrity MLA citation style
    5. 5. How do you defineplagiarism? http://icanhascheezburger.com/2007/09/12/copy-cat/
    6. 6. How do you defineplagiarism?
    7. 7. How do you defineplagiarism? ◦ Using someone‘s ideas or expression of those ideas (words, pictures, music, etc) ◦ Without giving proper credit
    8. 8. An interesting side story A quote attributed to Martin Luther King Jr. went viral after the death of Osama bin Laden But part of it was never said or written by him http://www.theatlantic.com/national/arc hive/2011/05/anatomy-of-a-fake- quotation/238257/ What‘s the big deal?
    9. 9. It‘s out there, why not reusewww.msnbc.msn.com/id/32657885 it? Gabriel, Trip. “Plagiarism Lines Blur for Students in theImage by Duane Hoffmann Digital Age.” nytimes.com. The New York Times, 1 Aug 2010. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/02/education /02cheat.html> ―If you are not so worried about presenting yourself as absolutely unique, then it‘s O.K. …if you say other people‘s words, it‘s O.K. if you say things you don‘t believe, …it‘s O.K. if you write papers you couldn‘t care less about because they accomplish the task, which is turning something in and getting a grade … and it‘s O.K. if you put words out there without getting any credit.‖ ~Susan D. Blum anthropologist at The University of Notre Dame, author of ―My Word!: Plagiarism and College Culture‖ on student attitudes toward plagiarism
    10. 10. It‘s out there, why not reuseit? Discussion on the article: • Your thoughts on plagiarism • Why don‘t some people seem to think it‘s bad to copy? • Why do people who know it‘s wrong still do it? • Does downloading music count? • Is their plagiarism in business?
    11. 11. Why does it matter? Newitz, Annalee. (2012, January 16) ―You are bitching about the wrong things when you read an article about science.‖ i09.com. i09 blog, 16 Jan 2012. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <http://io9.com/5873948/you-are-bitching- about-the-wrong-things-when-you-read-an- article-about-science> ―Science is designed to challenge our common sense assumptions about the world because they are often wrong. Sometimes, however, common sense turns out to be right. Which is why occasionally science seems to prove the obvious. But thats not science being useless - its science doing what it does best, which is applying rigor and rationality to anecdote and dogma.‖
    12. 12. Why does it matter? Discussion on the article • Why is it important to attribute information to a source? • Why is anecdotal information still so compelling? • What does this have to do with you? In real life? In school?
    13. 13. Why does it matter? It was a dark and  Skin cancer is the stormy night most common form of cancer
    14. 14. Common KnowledgeQuandary ―I‘ve heard that common knowledge doesn‘t have to be cited. What is common knowledge?‖ Some examples: ◦ Waste not, want not. ◦ George Washington was the first president of the US ◦ College students like pizza… When in doubt, cite it.
    15. 15. The point is… No matter where you are, you will constantly need to assess the information around you In order to be an informed consumer you should know how to evaluate the information you acquire In order to support your own arguments you should know how to research your question and cite your sources
    16. 16. A more serious example The German Defense Minister resigned and his PhD was taken away because it was found that his thesis was plagiarized http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world- europe-12608083
    17. 17. What is the policy at Towson? Policy for Academic Integrity: ◦ http://www.towson.edu/studentaffairs/polic ies/academicintegrity.asp Two Strike System 100 reported cases a year One suspension a year
    18. 18. Why is it important to cite yoursources? Poll ◦ http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_ polls/OTQ2NTA4NTAw
    19. 19. Why is it important to Cite yourSources? Allows your readers to verify and identify your information ◦ Support your argument Gives credit to the owners of the ideas ◦ Not plagiarizing Get credit for your ideas! Required for your assignment!
    20. 20. What needs to be cited? Poll ◦ http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_ polls/LTE0ODA0NTgyNTg
    21. 21. What needs to be cited? Books Examples: images from Web Pages Web, statistical tables Magazine articles Graphics VHS,DVD, audio, etc. Government reports Statistics Encyclopedia articles Any source of information!
    22. 22. Example A Original  Student Dont look for one of these  Googles approach may win tech heavyweights to knock out over the long term. In the out the other. Yet if history early 1980s Apple lost its lead is any guide, Googles in the PC market as Microsoft approach may win out over enlisted the aid of hordes of the long term. Recall that in software developers and the early 1980s Apple lost dozens of PC manufacturers. its lead in the PC market when Microsoft enlisted the aid of hordes of software developers and dozens of PC manufacturers. Now, if Google can marshal such a united front, Apple could again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    23. 23. Example A Original  Student Dont look for one of these  Googles approach may win tech heavyweights to knock out over the long term. In the out the other. Yet if history early 1980s Apple lost its lead is any guide, Googles in the PC market as Microsoft approach may win out over enlisted the aid of hordes of the long term. Recall that in software developers and the early 1980s Apple lost dozens of PC manufacturers. its lead in the PC market when Microsoft enlisted the aid of hordes of software developers and dozens of PC manufacturers. Now, if Google can marshal such a united front, Apple could again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    24. 24. Example B Original  Student Dont look for one of these  History tells us that tech heavyweights to knock Googles approach may be out the other. Yet if history successful over the long is any guide, Googles term. In the early 1980s approach may win out over Apple lagged in the PC the long term. Recall that in market as Microsoft the early 1980s Apple lost collaborated with software its lead in the PC market developers and dozens of when Microsoft enlisted the PC manufacturers. Now, if aid of hordes of software Google would only developers and dozens of summon a united front, PC manufacturers. Now, if Apple could again be Google can marshal such a swamped by the collective united front, Apple could innovations (Burrows). again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    25. 25. Example B Original  Student Dont look for one of these  History tells us that tech heavyweights to knock Googles approach may be out the other. Yet if history successful over the long is any guide, Googles term. In the early 1980s approach may win out over Apple lagged in the PC the long term. Recall that in market as Microsoft the early 1980s Apple lost collaborated with software its lead in the PC market developers and dozens of when Microsoft enlisted the PC manufacturers. Now, if aid of hordes of software Google would only developers and dozens of summon a united PC manufacturers. Now, if front, Apple could again be Google can marshal such a swamped by the collective united front, Apple could innovations (Burrows). again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    26. 26. Example C Original  Student Dont look for one of these  Google stands a chance of tech heavyweights to knock beating Apple if it can out the other. Yet if history benefit from the pooled is any guide, Googles ideas of software approach may win out over developers and device the long term. Recall that in manufacturers, following the early 1980s Apple lost the strategy that Microsoft its lead in the PC market employed to Apple‘s when Microsoft enlisted the detriment in the early ‗80s. aid of hordes of software developers and dozens of PC manufacturers. Now, if Google can marshal such a united front, Apple could again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    27. 27. Example C Original  Student Dont look for one of these  Google stands a chance of tech heavyweights to knock beating Apple if it can out the other. Yet if history benefit from the pooled is any guide, Googles ideas of software approach may win out over developers and device the long term. Recall that in manufacturers, following the early 1980s Apple lost the strategy that Microsoft its lead in the PC market employed to Apple‘s when Microsoft enlisted the detriment in the early ‗80s. aid of hordes of software developers and dozens of PC manufacturers. Now, if Google can marshal such a united front, Apple could again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    28. 28. Example D Original  Student Dont look for one of these  It is possible that in the tech heavyweights to knock battle of the ―tech out the other. Yet if history heavyweights‖ Google is any guide, Googles might eventually prevail approach may win out over over Apple if it follows the the long term. Recall that in strategy that Microsoft the early 1980s Apple lost employed to Apple‘s its lead in the PC market detriment during the early when Microsoft enlisted the ‗80s: collaborating, and aid of hordes of software innovating, with software developers and dozens of developers and PC manufacturers. Now, if manufacturers (Burrows Google can marshal such a 25). united front, Apple could again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    29. 29. Example D Original  Student Dont look for one of these  It is possible that in the tech heavyweights to knock battle of the ―tech out the other. Yet if history heavyweights‖ Google is any guide, Googles might eventually prevail approach may win out over over Apple if it follows the the long term. Recall that in strategy that Microsoft the early 1980s Apple lost employed to Apple‘s its lead in the PC market detriment during the early when Microsoft enlisted the ‗80s: collaborating, and aid of hordes of software innovating, with software developers and dozens of developers and PC manufacturers. Now, if manufacturers (Burrows Google can marshal such a 25). united front, Apple could again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    30. 30. Tips to avoid plagiarism Documentation - keep track of materials used for your working bibliography Quote carefully – color code or use quotes when taking notes. Beware cutting & pasting. Note key ideas then ―Shut the book‖ Try to boil down the info—summarize Proofread!
    31. 31. Style Manuals Different disciplines use different style manuals ◦ Social Sciences = American Psychological Association (APA) ◦ Humanities = MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (MLA)
    32. 32. Library Resources for MLA
    33. 33. Citing correctly in MLA – ExactQuote Every in-text 1. ―x‖ citation should have a match in 2. In-text citation the (Smith 35) or (Smith) bibliography 3. An entry in the Works Cited list (the bibliography) at the end of the paper
    34. 34. Citing correctly in MLA -Paraphrase 1. Legitimate paraphrase Again, every in-text 2. In-text citation citation should have a match in the (Smith 35) or (Smith) bibliography! 3. An entry in the Works Cited list at the end of the paper
    35. 35. In-text Citation for an Article (HTML)from a Database (Business Source Complete) In-text: ◦ Mobile devices increase access to sensitive corporate data (Swartz 25). In-text with signal phrase: ◦ Swartz points out that mobile devices increase access to sensitive corporate data (25).
    36. 36. Works Cited Entry for an Article (HTML)from a Database (Business Source Premier)Swartz, Nikki. ―Safeguarding CorporateSecrets.‖ Information ManagementJournal 40.5 (2006): 24-30. BusinessSource Complete. Web. 8 Feb. 2012.
    37. 37. Some ―for fun‖ citations Here is an interesting fact (Wolfensohn 25) You may be surprised to learn this startling statistic (Association of Associations) Here is the way that researcher Beverly Santana frames the issue (Santana 110-114)
    38. 38. Works CitedAssociation of Associations. Surprising Statistics: A Study. AA, 2009. Web. 9 Sept. 2011. <http://www.theassociation.org/stats.>Santana, Beverly. “Why Is Research So Challenging?” Journal of Puzzling Questions 22.4(2011): 110-145. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Feb. 2012.Wolfensohn, Hans David. You Will Enjoy This Book: Read It Now. Towson, MD: Towson Press, 2011. Print.
    39. 39. Sample Paper in MLA style Would you like to see how a sample paper in MLA Style looks, headings, in-text citations, Works Cited list and all? ◦ http://bit.ly/A6LUEk If you need more than the resource guides on the library website ◦ Diane Hacker ◦ OWL
    40. 40. Questions? Feel free to contact me: ◦ Laksamee Putnam ◦ lputnam@towson.edu ◦ 410.704.3746. ◦ Twitter: @CookLibraryofTU Or any reference librarian: ◦ Visit Cook Library Reference Desk ◦ 410.704.2462. ◦ IM – tucookchat

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