Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 (2012) 45 – 48
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
1877-0428 © 2011 Pub...
46 	 Mahnaz Esteki and Somayeh Moinmehr / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 (2012) 45 – 48
Mahnaz Esteki/ Proce...
47Mahnaz Esteki and Somayeh Moinmehr / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 (2012) 45 – 48
Mahnaz Esteki/ Procedia...
48 	 Mahnaz Esteki and Somayeh Moinmehr / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 (2012) 45 – 48Mahnaz Esteki/ Proced...
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  1. 1. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 (2012) 45 – 48 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com 1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the 4th International Conference of Cognitive Science doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.01.008 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Social and Behavioral SciencesProcedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 00 (2010) 000–000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 4th International Conference of Cognitive Science (ICCS 2011) Comparison of the relationship between metacognitive states and coping styles with stress in gifted and normal students Mahnaz Estekia,* , Somayeh Moinmehra ªPsychology Faculty, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the relationship between metacognitive states and coping styles in gifted and normal students. Sampling method was random population. Samples were 110 gifted and 100 normal students. The research plan was post event. Assessment of Coping with Stress Questionnaire and Metacognitive States Questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed by correlation, t-test and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that self-monitoring, non- compromising style and unpromising isolation were higher in gifted than normal students. There is a direct correlation between compromising styles and metacognitive states in two groups and a significant concept of compromising styles and the isolationism to predict metacognitive states in gifted and normal groups. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: Metacognition; coping style; gifted students; stress; normal students 1. Introduction Adolescence is one of the most important and the most stressful periods in human life. The major changes take place in all aspects of adolescence life (physical, mental, cognitive, and social) and make adolescence as one of the most critical growth stages. One of the major changes made in this stage is to change the cognition of adolescent. Through extending their own knowledge, the adolescent learn necessary skills continuously for solving problem and in addition, a cognitive system or super system (metacognition) is formed in this stage that perceives and organizes the other aspects of cognition (Berg, 2001). Flavel believes that the concept of metacognition relates to abstract thought in Piaget cognitive development view. At this stage of cognitive development which occurs in adolescence simultaneously, a person is able to do analogical reasoning which requires metacognition. Flavel stated that Piaget metacognitive view cannot emerge before abstract operation because selfdom prevents both individual introspection and also individual deep study of the matters in pre-adolescence (Flavel, 1992; Piaget & Inhelder, 1978). There are various theories about the relationship between intelligence and metacognition which are classified in three main groups. In all these theories, the main question is: Can metacognition be reduced to cognition or in other words, are metacognitive skills generally parts of individual cognitive abilities? (Slife, Weiss, & Bell, 1985). ‫ــــــــــــــــــ‬ * Corresponding author. Tel.: +98-21-88833287; Fax: +98-21-88740746-02188847000 E-mail address: p.esteki@gmail.com © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the 4th International Conference of Cognitive Science
  2. 2. 46 Mahnaz Esteki and Somayeh Moinmehr / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 (2012) 45 – 48 Mahnaz Esteki/ Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 00 (2011) 000–000 The first group is called "intelligence model", it is believed that metacognition is, in general, part of individual intelligence and cognitive abilities (Davidson, Deuser, & Sternberg, 1994). The second group is called "independence model", it means that metacognitive skills are completely independent of intelligence (Allon, Gutkin, & Bruning, 1994) and the third group as a combination of previous models suggests that metacognitive skills are somewhat dependent on intelligence, but in other aspects they act independently so they are considered as a factor to improve the learning (Elshout & Veenman, 1992). Regarding the relationship between metacognition and stress, the research implies that the metacognitive beliefs about anxiety play an important role in keeping and intensifying symptoms of anxiety more than the content of anxieties. Positive and negative beliefs about anxiety, which generally are extravagant and non-realistic, can cause to continue the symptoms of anxiety and create more suffering encountered by stress (Harvey, Watkins, Mansell, & Shafran, 2004). In the study, we try our best to improve knowledge of mental health programs in education department by reviewing the relationship between metacognitive states and coping styles with stress and also comparing the relation in gifted and normal students. 2. Methods Considering the subject of the research, the statistical population included the total female secondary school students in Tehran. Total sample was 210 female students who were chosen as 110 gifted students and 100 normal ones. In this study, sampling method is random. Mean, Variance, Standard Deviation were used in descriptive statistics and also two independent groups T test and Pearson correlation applied in inferential statistics. Both Assessments of Copying with Stress Questionnaire (ACS) and Metacognitive States Questionnaire were used to assess metacognition and coping with stress. The Assessment of Copying with Stress Questionnaire consists of two compromising and non-compromising styles, as well as an unpromising isolation subscale. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to measure the validity of questionnaire and the coefficient 0.88 was obtained. Cronbach's alpha coefficient indicates good internal assimilation in the questions of coping styles. The metacognitive status questionnaire has four components (knowledge, cognitive strategies, planning and monitoring). In order to calculate the validity of questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated and the coefficient 0.82 was obtained. To check validity, the relation between two questionnaires and academic achievement was assessed and it was concluded that questionnaires have sufficient validity. 3. Results Table 1: T test results for comparing the metacognitive state in gifted and normal students Variables Group Mean sd F Sig t df Sig Knowledge Gifted Normal 13.85 14.21 2.63 2.51 0.24 0.625 -1.025 208 0.306 Cognitive strategy Gifted Normal 14.43 14.73 2.55 2.74 0.06 0.807 -0.828 208 0.409 Planning Gifted Normal 14.83 15.16 2.68 2.77 0.157 0.692 -0.885 208 0.377 Monitoring Gifted Normal 14.29 15.05 2.54 2.59 0.209 0.033 -2.144 208 0.648 Meta cognitive state Gifted Normal 57.39 59.15 8.61 8.79 0.068 0.795 -1.464 208 0.145 As the results show that considering the assumed variances similarity and given that calculated t is significant only for self-monitoring component (P = 0.033, t (208) = -2.14) in less than 0.05, it can be concluded that there is significant difference only between self-monitoring component in gifted and normal students.
  3. 3. 47Mahnaz Esteki and Somayeh Moinmehr / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 (2012) 45 – 48 Mahnaz Esteki/ Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 00 (2011) 000–000 Table 2: T test results for comparing the state of coping styles with stress in gifted and normal students Variables Group Mean Sd F Sig t df Sig Compromising Gifted Normal 13.85 14.21 2.63 2.51 2.895 0.09 -0.341 208 0.733 Non-compromising Gifted Normal 14.43 14.73 2.55 2.74 0.228 0.633 -3.06 208 0.003 Isolationism Gifted Normal 14.83 15.16 2.68 2.77 0. 0.077 0.782 -5.961 208 0.001 As the results show that considering the assumed variances similarity and given that calculated it is significant only for uncompromising coping style (P = 0.033, t (208) = -3.060) and also isolationism coping style (P< 0.001, t (208) = -5.961) in less than 0.05, it can be concluded that there is significant difference between non-compromising coping styles and unpromising isolation in gifted and normal students. The comparison of means between these two groups shows that the mean of non-compromising coping styles and unpromising isolation is higher in normal students than gifted students. Table 3: Pearson correlation coefficient for the relationship between assessments of coping with stress and metacognitive state Variables Gifted Normal Compromising - Metacognitive state 0.559** 0.264** Non-compromising - Metacognitive state 0.142 0. 092 Isolationism - Metacognitive state -0. 252** -0. 215* As the results show that significant positive correlations are found between compromising coping style and metacognitive state in less than 0.01 and also significant negative correlations are found between isolationism coping style and metacognitive state in less than 0.05 in gifted and normal students. This means that when compromising coping style increases, metacognitive state increases while isolationism coping style increases, metacognitive state decreases. 4. Conclusion Among the four components of metacognition states, self-monitoring component was significantly different in both groups of gifted and normal students. Thus, the normal group scores were higher than the gifted group. Therefore, it can be said that normal students benefit from all metacognitive state components more than gifted students. Contradict results are found between two groups about the theoretical approaches for the relationship of intelligence and metacognition, since a group has considered metacognition as one of the elements of intelligence and believes that it has no independent nature (Cheng, 1993; Hannah & Shore, 1995; Shore & Dover, 1987; Span & Overtoom-Corsmit, 1986; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990) and another group believes that intelligence and metacognition act independently (Maqsud, 1997; Swanson, Christie, & Rubadeau, 1993). On the other hand, theorists who believe the full independence of relation between intelligence and metacognition (Allon et al., 1994) support the results of the current research. No significant difference was found in the mean of normal and gifted group in compromising Coping styles. With regard to more usage of non-compromising coping styles by normal students and higher mean of unpromising isolation subscales in the group it can be said that the results are aligned with data obtained from the Terman study (1921), which suggests the superiority of gifted students in all areas such as intelligence, physical condition, social acceptance, academic achievement, emotional stability and moral matters. More use of non-compromising coping styles can cause the normal students to be descended in lower level of emotional stability and also influenced by damage more than stressors. On the other hand, referring to non significant difference between the two groups in terms of compromising coping styles, it can be said that such results are not aligned with findings that indicate "stress" and "coping style" differences in gifted and normal groups.
  4. 4. 48 Mahnaz Esteki and Somayeh Moinmehr / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 (2012) 45 – 48Mahnaz Esteki/ Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 00 (2011) 000–000 There is significant relationship between metacognitive states and coping styles. Referring to correlation analysis in this study, it can generally be implied that significant relationships are found between variables in gifted population. While non significant relationship exists in normal population. It means that when metacognitive abilities of the gifted students increase, compromising coping styles also will grow and they will assist individual in stress situations. While such a relationship is not found in normal students, and it seems another factors except metacognition are effective in their coping responses. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that significant differences in the variables are found between normal and gifted students. Contrary to expectation in metacognition state, it was reported higher use of metacognitive strategies by normal students than gifted students so it can be used as a solution to improve the cognitive forces and to compensate for possible failures. In addition, high metacognitive states in normal adolescents has not lead to greater use of positive coping styles, and even it uses non-compromising copying styles extensively and gives up against the problems. Regarding the relationship between metacognition and stress, it can be said that the existing metacognition causes to increase the stress level and make assessment of copying harder in normal students due to inappropriate content. In other word, metacognition can be productive by itself and cause non-compromising and negative coping styles which hurt the person due to simultaneous high stress performance. On the other hand, high metacognitive states without superior cognitive abilities make problem solving harder and it may lead student to unpromising isolation. In this study, choosing the students of talented educational centers as a gifted group may not be a precise criteria for classification of intellectual adolescents and in fact, the school entrance exam may not be an exact indicator for IQ. Moreover, among students known as normal may exist some students with higher IQ than so-called gifted students. Thus, it is worthy the future researchers use a more accurate test to devote students to normal and gifted groups. References Allon, M., Gutkin, T. B., & Bruning, R. (1994). The relationship between metacognition and intelligence in normal adolescents: Some tentative but surprising findings. Psychology in the Schools, 31, 93-97. Berk, L. (2001). Child development. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Cheng, P. (1993). Metacognition and giftedness: The state of the relationship. Gifted Child Quarterly, 37, 105-112. Davidson, J. E., Deuser, R., & Sternberg, R. J. (1994). The role of metacognition in problem solving. In J. Metcalfe & A. P. Shimamura (Eds.), Metacognition: Knowing about knowing (pp. 207-226). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Elshout, V. J., & Veenman, M. V. J. (1992). Relation between intellectual ability and working method as predictors of learning. Journal of Educational Research, 85, 134-143. Flavell, J. H. (1992). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906- 911. Hannah, C. L., & Shore, B. M. (1995). Metacognition and high intellectual ability: Insights from the study of learning-disabled gifted students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39, 95-109. Harvey, A., Watkins, E., Mansell, W., & Shafran, R. (2004). Cognitive behavioral processes across psychological disorders: A transdiagnostic approach to research and treatment. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Maqsud, M. (1997). Effects of metacognitive skills and nonverbal ability on academic achievement of high school pupils. Educational Psychology, 17, 387-397. Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1978). Memory and ntelligence. New York: Basic Books. Shore, B. M., & Dover, A. C. (1987). Metacognition, intelligence and giftedness. Gifted Child Quarterly, 31, 37-39. Slife, B. D., Weiss, J., & Bell, T. (1985). Separability of metacognition and cognition: Problem solving in learning disabled and regular students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 437-445. Span, P., & Overtoom-Corsmit, R. (1986). Information processing by intellectually gifted pupils solving mathematical problems. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 17, 273-295. Swanson, H. L., Christie, L., & Rubadeau, R. J. (1993). The relationship between metacognition and analogical reasoning in mentally retarded, learning disabled, average, and gifted children. Learning Disabilities Research, 8, 70-81. Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1990). Student differences in self-regulated learning: Relating grade, sex, and giftedness to self- efficacy and strategy use. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 51-59.

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