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“ We're growing a bunch of [young] people who see what they do as social and collaborative and as part of joining communities ...
“ They function quite naturally in ‘teams,’ where everybody is an expert in something but they know how to integrate their expertise with everybody else’s; they know how to understand the other person’s expertise so they can pull off an action together in a complicated world.” – author and professor James Paul Gee
"For all Internet problems, the vast majority of MySpace teens either had appropriate reactions or ignored the behavior. ”
– Prof. Larry Rosen
92% responded appropriately to sexual solicitation
90% to harassment
94% to unwanted exposure to sexual materials
As for predators in social network sites... “ There is no evidenc e predators are stalking or abducting unsuspecting victims based on information they posted in social sites.” – Crimes Against Children Research Center, March ’09
Question Has the growth in young people ’s use of the Internet correlated with a rise in sexual abuse against children?
SA Sub 1990-2005* Rate per 10,000 Children (<18) Source: NCANDS / Finkelhor & Jones, 2006 51% Decline ( during the period of the Web ’s existence) Answer: No Confirmed cases of child sexual abuse
SA Sub 1990-2005* Source: FBI & CACRC, 2009 & ‘10 The trend continues
“ Substantiated cases of child sexual abuse declined 58% from 1992-2008.”
Latest data : Child sexual abuse in 2008 was down 6% from the previous year.
The 2008 figures “add to an already substantial positive long-term trend, especially for sexual and physical abuse.”
As for other risk factors... “ Youth violence is way down , as is teen pregnancy , smoking , alcohol and drug use , suicides , and high school drop-out rates – whereas civic engagement has improved along with youth taking more AP classes in high school. Standardized educational achievement scores have either remained steady or improved slightly. Aside from obesity, perhaps, most trends in youth behavior are moving in a positive direction.” – Prof. Christopher Ferguson, Texas A&M
“ Because a bully’s success depends heavily on context , attempts to prevent bullying should concentrate primarily on changing the context rather than directly addressing the victim’s or the bully’s behavior.” This involves “the entire school community.”
– Yale psychology Prof. Alan Yazdin and Carlo Rotella at Boston College
Most kids don ’t cyberbully Source: Cox Communications Teen Online & Wireless Safety Survey
Perception vs. reality: The POWER of ‘social norming’ Source: Craig & Perkins, Hobart and William Smith Colleges 2008
Reinforcing social norms Source: Assessing Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying the Social Norms Model to Adolescent Violence: Craig, Perkins 2008
Nude or sexually explicit photo-sharing or text messages
Usually via cellphones, but possible via other devices and Web
Illegal when involving minors
Overzealous prosecutors have charged teens with production, possession, distribution of child pornography–felonies
How common is sexting? Earliest study reported that 20% of US teens had sent a sexting message. The latest study found 4% had. Received: 15-17% Forwarded: 3% Sources : Harris Interactive/Cox/NCMEC 5/09; AP/MTV 12/09; Pew 12/09 Sent: 4-10%
Teen “romance” – expression of shared intimacy with partner
Flirting or relationship currency
“ Truth or Dare” (normative game gone very wrong)
Revenge ( “revenge porn”)
Bullying or intimidation ( “pranks”)
2% – “Photo was forwarded to an authority figure and I got in trouble.” 1% – “Photo was posted online where many people could see it.” 4% – “The person I sent the photo to threatened to send it to someone else.” 2% – “I accidentally sent the photo to the wrong person.” 2% – “The person I sent the photo to made fun of me.” 2% – “The photo was forwarded to someone I didn't want to see it” Did bad things happen after sexting messages were sent? Source: Cox Communications Teen Online & Wireless Safety Survey, 2009
“ Promote digital citizenship and new media literacy in pre-K-12 education as a national priority.” – Youth Safety on a Living Internet: Report of the Online Safety & Technology Working Group Our report to Congress, June 2010...
The pillars of citizenship learning Photo by Julian Turner
“ As a society, we have spent too much time focused on what media are doing to young people and not enough time asking what young people are doing with media . Rather, we need to embrace an approach based on media ethics, one that empowers young people to take greater responsibility for their own actions and holds them accountable for the choices they make as media producers and members of online communities.” – Prof. Henry Jenkins, USC