Name: _______________________ SPS0908
SPS Reading Worksheet Packet
Yamaha Sound Reinforcement Handbook
A single complete cycle of an acoustical pressure wave consists of two components. What are
compression and rarefaction
The rate of air pressure fluctuation is called the _________________ of a sound wave
The amount of time required for one complete cycle of a sound wave is called the
______________ of the wave.
The speed of sound is ___________ feet per second
The physical distance covered by one complete cycle of a given frequency is called the
The amplitude of an audio signal is called the ________________________.
The time relationship of a sound wave or audio signal to a known reference is know as the
phase of a signal
The phase of audio signals is measured in _________________.
What are the three basic purposes of a sound system?
to help people hear something, to make sound louder
for artistic reason,to enable people to hear sound in
Name two types of input transducers
air pressure or velocity microphones, contact pickup
Name 2 types of output transducers
woofer loudspeakers, full-range loudspeakers
What does the term frequency response describe?
the relationship between the device's input &output with regard to signal frequency& amplitude
A Frequency Response Graph measures two components of an audio signal. What are they?
range of frequency and what fluctuations in output level occur within that range
Pink noise generates tones at equal energy per ________________.
In a balanced circuit, what is the best means of reducing hum?
twisting the dual conductors
Frequency Response problems in cabling are often due to ____________________ between signal
Which component of a sound system is most susceptible to large variations in frequency
Frequency response problems with cables are most often caused by the cable’s
______________________ between signal conductors.
Every sound that we hear is a composite of sine waves a different ____________________ and
What does “RMS” stand for?
Root Mean Square
How can you derive the RMS value of a sine wave mathematically?
the peak value can be multiplied by a constant
What device can be used to measure sound pressure levels?
sound level meter
(True/False) Human hearing has “flat frequency response.”
What two scientists first described the idea of “Equal Loudness Contours?”
Fletcher and Munson
What is another term used in the book to specify loudness?
Between what two frequencies is the peak of human hearing sensitivity found?
3 and 4 kHz
Why are our ears most sensitive at the frequencies listed in the previous question?
it's where the outer ear's canal is resonant
What does a typical “loudness control” on a car stereo system do and why?
low SPL listing levels, this makes the music seem more natural at less earsplitting levels
What is the difference between “Frequency Response” and “Frequency Range?”
frequency response reproduces the signals input, frequency range is just the original sound
Specifications can be represented in a typed (printed) form, or in a ________________ form.
White noise is….
unfiltered,unaltered thermal noise
White noise contains equal energy per _______________.
Pink noise contains equal energy per_________________.
Why do we use Pink Noise instead of White Noise for system testing?
it is more useful as a loud speaker test and calibration signal
What does “EIN” stand for?
Equivalent Input Noise
What is audio distortion?
any unwanted change that occurs in an audio signal
Audio distortion can alter the __________________, _________________ or create spurious
frequencies that were not present in the input signal.
Which form of distortion (THD or IMD) is more objectionable to our ears?
the total opposition to flow of alternating current in an electric circuit and is measured in ohms
“Output Impedance” is also known as what?
“Input Impedance” is also known as what?
the load impedance
What are some symptoms of impedance mismatching?
improper frequency response to excess distortion to incorrect operating levels to circuit failure
By its very nature, Impedance varies with _____________________.
Define the term “Crosstalk.”
signal leakage from one circuit to another,or between cables
What two types of coupling can cause crosstalk?
What type of microphone is the most common type in use today?
The second most widely used type of microphone is the ____________________.
Another word for condenser is ________________________.
Why is a condenser microphone able to respond quickly and accurately to sound pressure?
because the diaphragm of a condenser is not loaded down with the mass of coil
What is the primary difference between a condenser microphone and an electret condenser
electrets have the amplifier and built-in battery , regular condensers just strictly us phantom power
What type of microphone is among the earliest types of mic ever developed?
What is another term for a Pressure Response microphone?
PZM(Pressure Zone Microphone)
Name several scenarios where shotgun mics are used successfully.
broadcasting, film work, special effects, long distance pickup in sports events.
Name one scenario where parabolic microphones are used successfully.
Define microphone pickup pattern (polar pattern).
the way in which the element responds to sounds coming in from different directions
The smaller a microphone is, the better its _______________________ response will be.
The term “Mic Splitting” refers to…..
the division of the audio signal output from the mic to feed two or more different inputs
Overloading a microphone (connecting it to several console inputs simultaneously) can cause
degraded frequency and transient response, and S/N ratio
What is the main purpose of a microphone splitter transformer?
to isolate the shield grounds between two protons of a sound system
What brand of transformers does the book refer to?
Jensen model JE-MB-C
What other terms are used to describe a mixing console?
mixer,mixing console,console,board,and desk
What does a preamplifier do?
boosts a weaker audio signal to a level suitable for further mixing and signal processing
What is the primary purpose of the preamp in a condenser microphone?
used to boost the weak -70dBu to -50dBu nominal output levels, or used as a impedance converter
The signal that is fed to the auxiliary busses can be set to ___________ or ____________ fader.
Why are effects auxiliaries fed post fader?
sends are still subject to the send level control,but they also track fader changes
When mixing monitors from FOH, why are auxiliary busses derived from a pre-fader setting?
channel fader changes that are made to fine tune the main house will not effect the band on stage
What does the term “Pan Pot” actually stand for?
If a console is said to be a 24 x 8 system, what does that imply about the console?
24input channels 8 primary mixing busses
How would one define the term “Headroom” in the context of audio consoles?
the difference between the max level a circuit can handle and the nominal level in the circuit
Name two types of console meters described in the book.
Peak Meters,and VU(volume unit) Meter
Balanced wiring is audio systems is used to eliminate what?
externally generated moise
Name some reasons why a high quality monitor mix is important….
the band can hear themselves clearly,the affect on the quality of sound in the house, feedback
What does the term “Ringing Out” refer to?
the method of tuning the equalization of each monitor channel.
Name one tool other than equalization that can be used to fight feedback.
graphic or parametric EQ