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# Yamaha Sound Reinforcement Worksheet

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• 1. Name: _______________________ SPS0908 Class:________ SPS Reading Worksheet Packet for the Yamaha Sound Reinforcement Handbook
• 2. Section 1 A single complete cycle of an acoustical pressure wave consists of two components. What are they? compression and rarefaction frequency The rate of air pressure fluctuation is called the _________________ of a sound wave The amount of time required for one complete cycle of a sound wave is called the period ______________ of the wave. 1130 The speed of sound is ___________ feet per second The physical distance covered by one complete cycle of a given frequency is called the wavelength ___________________. signal level The amplitude of an audio signal is called the ________________________. The time relationship of a sound wave or audio signal to a known reference is know as the phase of a signal ___________________. degrees The phase of audio signals is measured in _________________. What are the three basic purposes of a sound system? to help people hear something, to make sound louder for artistic reason,to enable people to hear sound in remote locations. Name two types of input transducers air pressure or velocity microphones, contact pickup Name 2 types of output transducers woofer loudspeakers, full-range loudspeakers
• 3. Section 2 What does the term frequency response describe? the relationship between the device's input &output with regard to signal frequency& amplitude A Frequency Response Graph measures two components of an audio signal. What are they? range of frequency and what fluctuations in output level occur within that range octave Pink noise generates tones at equal energy per ________________. In a balanced circuit, what is the best means of reducing hum? twisting the dual conductors capacitance Frequency Response problems in cabling are often due to ____________________ between signal conductors. Which component of a sound system is most susceptible to large variations in frequency response? loudspeakers Frequency response problems with cables are most often caused by the cable’s capacitance ______________________ between signal conductors. frequencies Every sound that we hear is a composite of sine waves a different ____________________ and amplitudes _____________________.
• 4. Section 3 What does “RMS” stand for? Root Mean Square How can you derive the RMS value of a sine wave mathematically? the peak value can be multiplied by a constant What device can be used to measure sound pressure levels? sound level meter (True/False) Human hearing has “flat frequency response.” false What two scientists first described the idea of “Equal Loudness Contours?” Fletcher and Munson What is another term used in the book to specify loudness? phon Between what two frequencies is the peak of human hearing sensitivity found? 3 and 4 kHz Why are our ears most sensitive at the frequencies listed in the previous question? it's where the outer ear's canal is resonant What does a typical “loudness control” on a car stereo system do and why? low SPL listing levels, this makes the music seem more natural at less earsplitting levels
• 5. Section 8 What is the difference between “Frequency Response” and “Frequency Range?” frequency response reproduces the signals input, frequency range is just the original sound graphically Specifications can be represented in a typed (printed) form, or in a ________________ form. White noise is…. unfiltered,unaltered thermal noise Hz White noise contains equal energy per _______________. octave Pink noise contains equal energy per_________________. Why do we use Pink Noise instead of White Noise for system testing? it is more useful as a loud speaker test and calibration signal What does “EIN” stand for? Equivalent Input Noise What is audio distortion? any unwanted change that occurs in an audio signal amplitude phase Audio distortion can alter the __________________, _________________ or create spurious frequencies that were not present in the input signal. Which form of distortion (THD or IMD) is more objectionable to our ears? IND Define Impedance…. the total opposition to flow of alternating current in an electric circuit and is measured in ohms
• 6. “Output Impedance” is also known as what? source impedance “Input Impedance” is also known as what? the load impedance What are some symptoms of impedance mismatching? improper frequency response to excess distortion to incorrect operating levels to circuit failure frequency By its very nature, Impedance varies with _____________________. Define the term “Crosstalk.” signal leakage from one circuit to another,or between cables What two types of coupling can cause crosstalk? inductive, capacitive
• 7. Section 10 What type of microphone is the most common type in use today? dynamics condenser The second most widely used type of microphone is the ____________________. capacitor Another word for condenser is ________________________. Why is a condenser microphone able to respond quickly and accurately to sound pressure? because the diaphragm of a condenser is not loaded down with the mass of coil What is the primary difference between a condenser microphone and an electret condenser microphone? electrets have the amplifier and built-in battery , regular condensers just strictly us phantom power What type of microphone is among the earliest types of mic ever developed? Carbon What is another term for a Pressure Response microphone? PZM(Pressure Zone Microphone) Name several scenarios where shotgun mics are used successfully. broadcasting, film work, special effects, long distance pickup in sports events. Name one scenario where parabolic microphones are used successfully. nature recording Define microphone pickup pattern (polar pattern). the way in which the element responds to sounds coming in from different directions transient The smaller a microphone is, the better its _______________________ response will be.
• 8. Pages 182-185 The term “Mic Splitting” refers to….. the division of the audio signal output from the mic to feed two or more different inputs Overloading a microphone (connecting it to several console inputs simultaneously) can cause what effects? degraded frequency and transient response, and S/N ratio What is the main purpose of a microphone splitter transformer? to isolate the shield grounds between two protons of a sound system What brand of transformers does the book refer to? Jensen model JE-MB-C
• 9. Pages 149-182 What other terms are used to describe a mixing console? mixer,mixing console,console,board,and desk What does a preamplifier do? boosts a weaker audio signal to a level suitable for further mixing and signal processing What is the primary purpose of the preamp in a condenser microphone? used to boost the weak -70dBu to -50dBu nominal output levels, or used as a impedance converter pre post The signal that is fed to the auxiliary busses can be set to ___________ or ____________ fader. Why are effects auxiliaries fed post fader? sends are still subject to the send level control,but they also track fader changes When mixing monitors from FOH, why are auxiliary busses derived from a pre-fader setting? channel fader changes that are made to fine tune the main house will not effect the band on stage What does the term “Pan Pot” actually stand for? panoramic potentiometer If a console is said to be a 24 x 8 system, what does that imply about the console? 24input channels 8 primary mixing busses How would one define the term “Headroom” in the context of audio consoles? the difference between the max level a circuit can handle and the nominal level in the circuit Name two types of console meters described in the book. Peak Meters,and VU(volume unit) Meter Balanced wiring is audio systems is used to eliminate what? externally generated moise
• 10. Name some reasons why a high quality monitor mix is important…. the band can hear themselves clearly,the affect on the quality of sound in the house, feedback What does the term “Ringing Out” refer to? the method of tuning the equalization of each monitor channel. Name one tool other than equalization that can be used to fight feedback. graphic or parametric EQ