GCSE Advertising: Media Producers, Audiences, Messages and Values
Media Producers and AudiencesSection A Sample question
Compare the ways different media advertise a product or products to a specific target audience. In your answer, make sure you refer to examples from at least two media (e.g. television, radio, print, film, the internet)
Identify your examples
Analyse the similarities and/or differences between your examples
Explain how the producers hoped to appeal to those target audiences.
Messages and ValuesAdverts that change over timeSection B Sample question: In what ways have representations of people and/or products changed and/or stayed the same over time within the adverts you have looked at? In your answer refer in detail to two or more examples which you have studied. Make sure that you use at least one past advertisement and one recent advertisement in your answer. You should: Identify your examples Analyse the representations of people and/or products Compare the messages and values in these representations Explain what is the same and/or what has changed over time.
Key terms – mise-en-scene Mise-en-scène - literally everything that is "put in the scene", or frame, to be photographed (appropriate to the time/era portrayed). This usually includes production design, set, location, actors, costumes, make-up, gesture, proxemics/blocking, extras, props, lighting, shot composition/framing, use of colour, contrast and filter, and sometimes also includes camera angle, movement and sound. Lighting is often included within mise-en-scène.
Key terms - Narrative Narrative - the way in which a plot or story is told, by whom and in what order. Flash backs/forwards and ellipsis may be used as narrative devices.
Key terms –Camera work Camera/Lighting Terms, for example - cinematography, extreme close-up, medium close-up, medium shot, long shot, establishing shot, two-shot, pan, whip pan, zoom/reverse zoom, track, tilt, crane, dolly, canted frame, point-of-view, steadicam, handheld, camera set-up, high angle shot, aerial shot/bird's eye view, low angle shot/worm's eye view, film stock, video and digital video formats, lenses (wide angle, telephoto), focus, depth of field, blue screen/chroma key, high/low key and fill lighting, back-lighting.
Key terms - Editing Editing Terms, for example - continuity editing, shot-reverse shot, dissolve, superimpose, wipe, fade in or out, fade to black/to white, sound mixing, dubbing, ambient sound, diegetic/non-diegetic sound, synchronous/asynchronous sound, slow motion, eyeline match, match on action, rhythm, 180 degree rule, motivated editing, montage, jump cut, take, sequence, cross-cutting, SFX, CAD, digital editing techniques.
Key Terms –Production roles Production roles, for example - e.g. the screenwriter (adaptation or original screenplay), producers, the director, director of photography, editor, soundtrack composer, production designer, grips etc.
Key Terms – Production Processes Production processes - the stages of production (includes pre- and post-), distribution and exhibition.
Other important terms and concepts Other important terms and concepts - scene, sequence, continuity announcers, channel identity ("idents"), trailers, channel loyalty, sponsorship, scheduling, broadcast flow, inheritance factor, hammocking, striping and stranding, time-shifting, production values, public service broadcasting, ratings, BARB, producer/broadcaster, publisher or commissioner/broadcaster, vertical integration, public-access television, commissioning, franchise, pay-per-view, subscription, mode of address, storyboard, digital editing and delivery systems, terrestrial, satellite, cable, marketing, cross-media ownership, regulation, advertising revenue.