Introduction in PM2.5 measurements in              Urban China                 Roeland Jansen          PhD Student, Fudan ...
My presentation• Introduction in PM2.5     •   Why people talk about it?     •   How to characterize PM2.5?     •   Where ...
Why people talk about PM2.5 and what are they talking about?
Why people talk about PM2.5?
Effect on humans• Most harmful for:     • Elderly,     • Children (0-7 years) and     • People with Asthma     • People wi...
Effect on the Environment• Dry deposition: gravity, wind, buildings, trees• Wet deposition: rain, snow, etc.
Global warming effect.
What does PM look like?         Aerodynamic diameter “dp”         PM10 dp ≤ 10 μm (about 1/6 of a human hair)         PM2....
What does PM look like?               Reprinted from Fu et al., 2012
Names and standards• PM = particulate matter• PM = Aerosols = Particles = solid/liquid  dispersed in the atmosphere• Stand...
Where does PM2.5 come from?    The “Natural” sourcesSea: NaCl                           Desert:                           ...
Where does PM2.5 come from?The human or “Anthropogenic” sources (=harmful)                 NOx                 SO2        ...
Local sources and transport from          point sources                       Xiamen             Beijing
Nice day!  That’s why some days  are nice and most are  not so nice!Not so nice day!                          Reprinted fr...
Where does PM2.5 go?•   Dry deposition: gravity, wind, buildings, trees•   Wet deposition: rain, snow, etc.•   Chemical co...
Transport in the EnvironmentPicture taken at 278 km height   Reprinted from NASA (Science vol. 300: 1103-1104, 1996)
Situation in China
Data from OECD, IEA
1990   2008   1990   2008   1990   2008                            Data from OECD, IEA
1990   2008   1990   2008   1990   2008                              Data from OECD, IEA
1990   2008   1990   2008       1990    2008                            Data from OECD/World Bank
Effect with Increasing wealth1990   2008            1990   2008                                     Data from OECD, IEA an...
Economics and relation with the          Environment• Increase in Energy needs is supplied by Coal  factories:     •   Bur...
Why China is/was so bad?• Lack of Environmental awareness for decades;• Low efficiency of Coal factories;• Economic growth...
Sample and analyze PM2.5
Filter   PM2.5                                   MassConc= Mass before- Mass after   Inlet                           (Mass...
What’s inside a PM2.5?
Filter   PM2.5   InletCollected aerosolmass M on filter(eg 24 hrs)                    Flow                    contr   Air ...
Filter   PM2.5                                       Very Harmful!!   InletCollected aerosolmass M on filter(eg 24 hrs)   ...
Measurements in Beijing• Since 1998 measurements of PM2.5 increase of  3 – 4 % per year.• Scientists estimate that 50% com...
Towards a solution?• Beijing is planting trees between the 5th and 6th ring road  (about 13.000 hectare);• Improve fuel oi...
Fudan: 4th Teaching building
Sampler                 Marga Method                   Cation and Anion                    Chromatograph                  ...
Denuder1-SJAC2-IC-IC1: Ferm 1979; Winiwarter 1989; …2: Khlystov 1995; Slanina et al., 2001
Inorganics in aerosols and related trace gasses  •Inorganics in Aerosols        •Trace gasses  NH4+                       ...
What can we do with the MARGA data?• Use the data to study secondary aerosol (de)formation.   •Inorganic: mainly NH3 with ...
Real-time measurements of species in    aerosols and related trace gasses.In Fudan
App• http://air.fresh-ideas.cc/en/
Thank you!
Current PM2.5 Research by Roeland Jansen
Current PM2.5 Research by Roeland Jansen
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Current PM2.5 Research by Roeland Jansen

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Roeland Jansen of Fudan University introduces PM2.5 research including, causes, health related issues and other pertinent information.

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Current PM2.5 Research by Roeland Jansen

  1. 1. Introduction in PM2.5 measurements in Urban China Roeland Jansen PhD Student, Fudan University Green Drinks China, Suzhou, June 13 2012
  2. 2. My presentation• Introduction in PM2.5 • Why people talk about it? • How to characterize PM2.5? • Where PM2.5 comes from and where it goes? • Why some days are nice and most days or not so nice? • What can we do with our measurements?• My current work: PM2.5 chemical composition related to reduced visibility in Hangzhou
  3. 3. Why people talk about PM2.5 and what are they talking about?
  4. 4. Why people talk about PM2.5?
  5. 5. Effect on humans• Most harmful for: • Elderly, • Children (0-7 years) and • People with Asthma • People with heart disease• Most harmful are the trace elements (=heavy metals) which are inside PM2.5• Don’t do any physical activities with high PM, don’t go running. Instead go after a rain period or period with strong wind.
  6. 6. Effect on the Environment• Dry deposition: gravity, wind, buildings, trees• Wet deposition: rain, snow, etc.
  7. 7. Global warming effect.
  8. 8. What does PM look like? Aerodynamic diameter “dp” PM10 dp ≤ 10 μm (about 1/6 of a human hair) PM2.5 dp ≤ 2.5 μm (about 1/24 of a human hair) Expressed in μg/m3 d = 1 cm I = 1 cm3 Inside are up to 10000 particles This means that every breath you take contains about 5000000 particles
  9. 9. What does PM look like? Reprinted from Fu et al., 2012
  10. 10. Names and standards• PM = particulate matter• PM = Aerosols = Particles = solid/liquid dispersed in the atmosphere• Standard comes from Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) and is • Annual Average = 35 μg/m3 (2010 BJ: 75 and SH: 50)1 • Compare Annual Average set by USA MEP is 15 μg/m31 Ministry of Environmental Protection and Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center
  11. 11. Where does PM2.5 come from? The “Natural” sourcesSea: NaCl Desert: SiO2 (=sand) Vulcano: Sulfate Calcium Aluminium
  12. 12. Where does PM2.5 come from?The human or “Anthropogenic” sources (=harmful) NOx SO2 VOC OH NH3
  13. 13. Local sources and transport from point sources Xiamen Beijing
  14. 14. Nice day! That’s why some days are nice and most are not so nice!Not so nice day! Reprinted from Jacob
  15. 15. Where does PM2.5 go?• Dry deposition: gravity, wind, buildings, trees• Wet deposition: rain, snow, etc.• Chemical conversion by oxidation• Transport in the Environment
  16. 16. Transport in the EnvironmentPicture taken at 278 km height Reprinted from NASA (Science vol. 300: 1103-1104, 1996)
  17. 17. Situation in China
  18. 18. Data from OECD, IEA
  19. 19. 1990 2008 1990 2008 1990 2008 Data from OECD, IEA
  20. 20. 1990 2008 1990 2008 1990 2008 Data from OECD, IEA
  21. 21. 1990 2008 1990 2008 1990 2008 Data from OECD/World Bank
  22. 22. Effect with Increasing wealth1990 2008 1990 2008 Data from OECD, IEA and World Bank
  23. 23. Economics and relation with the Environment• Increase in Energy needs is supplied by Coal factories: • Burning Coal is a major contribution to Air Pollution • 70% of the Energy in China is from Coal • Every 7 to 10 days a new Coal factory opens • 30% of the world (2003)• Increase in traffic• Increase in Agriculture• All have a big impact on the environment
  24. 24. Why China is/was so bad?• Lack of Environmental awareness for decades;• Low efficiency of Coal factories;• Economic growth more important than the Environment;• But things are changing…
  25. 25. Sample and analyze PM2.5
  26. 26. Filter PM2.5 MassConc= Mass before- Mass after Inlet (Mass 24hr-Mass t0) / airflow Eg: 3020 ug – 1100 ug / 1 m3/hr = 80 ug/m3Collected aerosolmass M on filter(eg 24 hrs) Flow contr Air ol Pump
  27. 27. What’s inside a PM2.5?
  28. 28. Filter PM2.5 InletCollected aerosolmass M on filter(eg 24 hrs) Flow contr Air ol Pump
  29. 29. Filter PM2.5 Very Harmful!! InletCollected aerosolmass M on filter(eg 24 hrs) General composition Flow contr Air ol Pump
  30. 30. Measurements in Beijing• Since 1998 measurements of PM2.5 increase of 3 – 4 % per year.• Scientists estimate that 50% comes from automobile exhaust.• 30 stations at the end of this year• Each station costs about 80.000 – 380.000 RMB• Data available for public
  31. 31. Towards a solution?• Beijing is planting trees between the 5th and 6th ring road (about 13.000 hectare);• Improve fuel oil quality and lower the amount of sulfur in gasoline• Control of dust in construction sites;• Recycle 150.000 cars this year;• Coal-fired boilers replaced with cleaner energy heating• "It is estimated to take at least 10 years for Beijing to meet the upcoming national standards under the PM2.5 gauge”Hao Jiming, director of the Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering at Tsinghua University.
  32. 32. Fudan: 4th Teaching building
  33. 33. Sampler Marga Method Cation and Anion Chromatograph Remote Internal PCSyringe Pump =sample collect
  34. 34. Denuder1-SJAC2-IC-IC1: Ferm 1979; Winiwarter 1989; …2: Khlystov 1995; Slanina et al., 2001
  35. 35. Inorganics in aerosols and related trace gasses •Inorganics in Aerosols •Trace gasses NH4+ NH3 Na+ HNO2 K+ HNO3 Ca2+ HCl Mg2+ SO2 Cl- NO3- • 1 hour results SO42- • 1 m3/hr sample flow • Analyze with ion chromatography
  36. 36. What can we do with the MARGA data?• Use the data to study secondary aerosol (de)formation. •Inorganic: mainly NH3 with HNO3 and H2SO4• Use the data to study visibility changes like haze/fog events. •By hygroscopic properties related to chemical composition• Trace biomass burning using K+• Improve models
  37. 37. Real-time measurements of species in aerosols and related trace gasses.In Fudan
  38. 38. App• http://air.fresh-ideas.cc/en/
  39. 39. Thank you!

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