Rhythm, rhyme and music in teaching english to young students.

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Rhythm, rhyme and music in teaching english to young students.

  1. 1. Rhythm, Rhyme and Music in Teaching English to Young Students Elena Rafaelevna Watson, PhD January 23, 2014
  2. 2. Marshall McLuhan (19111980) “The Gutenberg Galaxy” (1962) Oral culture Print culture How communication technology (alphabetic writing, printing press, electronic media) - affects cognition , which in turn affects social organization
  3. 3. Oral Culture  What is ORAL CULTURE?    Ancient Greece Tribes in Amazonia, Africa and Indian / Pacific Ocean islands Way of transmitting oral history, oral literature, oral law and other kinds of knowledge across generations without a writing system.
  4. 4. people …    Dumb… Slow learners… Or…?
  5. 5. …Do they just do it … …in a different way?         How do they learn? - Through: Folktales Myths Poetry + rhythm Sayings & Ballads music Songs Chants Spells
  6. 6. Cognition in Oral tradition vs Cognition in Written tradition (Marshall McLuhan)         All senses are balanced and simultaneous, while auditory sense is dominant World of Acoustic Space Non-linear thinking Symbols & Situations Phenomenal memory Mnemonic devices: form, formulas Improvising Imagination + Emotion        Visual sense is dominant (How do you spell it?) Logic Analysis Abstract thinking Categories & Classification Connected linear sequences From easy to difficult; from simple to complex
  7. 7. Are There Any Features of Oral Culture in Modern Society?  Country   Religion:   Orthodox and Catholic vs Protestant Person    Russia vs Western World - exams Less educated people vs Well educated ??? People who sing a lot??? People who know a lot by heart??? vs Those who do not What about children?
  8. 8. How Can We Use This in Teaching English? Adopt an integrated approach! Grammar Vocabulary Phonetics Conversational practice Listening comprehension
  9. 9. Grammar: Building blocks? I would had it have not done been it for the unfortunate circumstances .
  10. 10. Vocabulary  Learning words in context     Difference in meaning Prepositions and word combinations Grammar attached … because it sounds right
  11. 11. Phonetics Teaching separate sounds and Intonations patterns? Or integrate it all into the rest of the material?
  12. 12. Listening Comprehension: What Are the Problems?  Anticipation & Predictability in:     Vocabulary Grammar Topic Background knowledge  As well as in:    Assimilation Rhythm Intonation
  13. 13. RHYTHM: stress-timing vs syllable-timing  Stress-timing    Stressed syllables take longer to say than unstressed syllables Regular alternation between the stressed and unstressed syllables Stressed syllables recur at regular intervals of time, unstressed syllables between them are squeezed  Syllabletiming: Each syllable has the same time duration
  14. 14. Stress-timing  Telegram principle   Stressed syllables – important / new information Unstressed syllables – function words, get compressed, for non-native speakers are hard to recognize
  15. 15. Do we have stress-timing or syllable-timing in Russian?   Do we compress unstressed or function words? Do we compress unstressed syllables?
  16. 16. are    stress-timed languages. So – what’s the problem? Careful speaking / reading Bad knowledge of grammar (building blocks) Rhythm: combination of stressed and unstressed syllables in a rhythmic group English: /STRESSED + unstressed/ Russian: /unstressed + STRESSED/
  17. 17. Формула A. A. Потебни 3 – a stressed vowel sound: ОСТОРÓЖНО 2 – a vowel sound in the syllable which directly precedes the stressed syllable: ОСТОРÓЖНО - a vowel in the initial position: ОСТОРÓЖНО - a vowel in the final position: ОСТОРÓЖНО 1 – unstressed vowels in all the other types of syllables МОЛОКÓ, ПОСЛÉДОВАТЕЛЬНЫЙ 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 КАРАКÁТИЦА; БЕЗОБРÁЗНЫЙ; НАПРИМÉР
  18. 18. Possible Mistakes: Ничего Себе! Demonstration [ˌdemənˈstreɪʃn] > [dɪmʌnˈstreɪʃn] Success [səkˈses]>[sʌkˈses] I suppose [aɪ ˈspəʊz]> [ˌaɪ sʌˈpəʊz] Д о с в и д а н и я [ д ъ с в ’ и д á
  19. 19. Focusing: which words to stress? Jack and Jill went up the hill To fetch a pail of water. Jack fell down and broke his crown And Jill came tumbling after.
  20. 20. Using poems and songs in class: Which ones to choose? Good morning, good morning, Good morning to you! Good morning, good morning, I’m glad to see you! Good morning to you! I’m glad to see you!
  21. 21. Jazz Chants: compact, efficient, all aspects at once (19) The sun is shining. I love the sun! – Me too! (3) The sun is shining today. It’s raining today. I love the rain! – Not me! (3) It’s raining, raining today. It’s snowing today. I love the snow! – I’m cold! (3) It’s snowing, snowing today. (a, the, too, not, it, I, me, today, cold, sun, to shine, to love, to be, rain, to rain, snow, to snow) = 17
  22. 22. Shoes and Socks! (2) What do you wear on your head? A hat. What do you wear on your hands? Gloves. What do you wear on your feet? Socks. Shoes and socks. Shoes and socks. What do you wear when it’s cold? Socks. Shoes and socks. Shoes and socks. What do you wear when it’s warm? Socks. Shoes and socks. Shoes and socks. Where do you wear your hat? On my head. Where do you wear your gloves? On my hands. What do you wear on your feet? Socks. Shoes and socks. Shoes and socks.
  23. 23. Who Is Sylvia? (3) Who has a name that starts with S? I do. She does. What’s her name? Sylvia. Who has a name that ends with A? I do. She does. What’s her name? Sylvia. Who has a name with a V in the middle? I do. She does. What’s her name? Sylvia. Who has a name with an L in the middle? I do. She does. What’s her name? Sylvia. Who is Sylvia? I am. She is. What’s her name? SYLVIA!
  24. 24. You Did It Again! (6) You did it again! - What did I do? You did it again! - What did I do? I told you not to do it, And you did it again! - I’m sorry. - I’m sorry. You broke it! - What did I break? You took it! - What did I take? You lost it! - What did I lose? You chose it! - What did I choose? I told you not to do it, And you did it again! - I’m sorry. - I’m sorry. You wore it! - What did I wear? You tore it! - What did I tear? I told you not to do it, And you did it again! - I’m sorry. - I’m sorry.
  25. 25. Grandma’s going to the grocery store! (14) Grandma’s going to the grocery store. (2) 1,2,3,4! Who’s going? - Grandma’s going! Where’s she going? - To the grocery store! 1,2,3,4! When is she going? - At a quarter after four! 1,2,3,4! What’s she going to buy at the grocery store? 1,2,3,4! A loaf of bread! A bottle of A big bag of milk! cookies And a little can of peas!
  26. 26. Holiday Jazz Chants: New Year’s Resolutions (4)  I promise:           To be very very good To do the things I should To make my bed each day To put my things away Not to throw my socks on the floor To put my socks in the drawer To do my homework right Not to stay up late at night To listen to my mom and dad Not to do anything bad
  27. 27. Fingerplays The itsy bitsy spider went up the water spout. Down came the rain and washed the spider out. Out came the sun, and dried up all the rain, And the itsy bitsy spider went up the spout again. Look at the diphthongs again! SPOUT, DOWN, OUT
  28. 28. Any other fingerplays?     Two little birds are sitting on the wall All the fish are swimming in the ocean This is a church and this is a steeple 5 little monkeys:    (swinging in the tree / jumping on the bed) This is a bunny with ears so funny Flitter flutter butterfly!: Teachers make them up!
  29. 29. Let Us Summarize It All! How Can We Teach Young Kids?  STRENGTHS:    Excellent Oral Perception Phenomenal Memory Learning in Context, through Models, Situations and Symbols
  30. 30. Let Us Summarize It All! How Can We Teach Young Kids?  WEAKNESSES    Bad Physical Command of the Body (including Organs of Speech) No Abstract Thinking (in our understanding) No Logic (in our understanding)
  31. 31. Let Us Summarize It All! How Can We Teach Young Kids? KEY WORD: LANGUAGE EXPOSURE! Laying a strong foundation for the future acquisition of English at school. May not be visible – below the surface. No quick spectacular results.
  32. 32. Things We Should Not Do     Start with the alphabet or teach it before kids are at least 6 years old Teach words out of context just providing the translation Teach grammar logically Have students repeat everything after a non-native English speaking teacher
  33. 33. Things We Should Do      Expose children to as much authentic audio and video material as possible Have children learn by heart as much authentic audio material as possible Mostly use CHANTS, SONGS, POEMS, FINGERPLAYS and SHORT DIALOGUES Teach RHYTHM! Turn songs and poems into speech RHYTHM, RHYMES, MUSIC and MULTIPLE REPETITION
  34. 34. Where Do We Get All This Wonderful Authentic Material? Among other things: 20 th Century Anglo-American (+ Australian and New Zealand) Children’s Literature & Pop-Culture (songs, films, games)
  35. 35. THANK YOU!

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