Gender in Social Institutions: Education


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Gender in Social Institutions: Education

  1. 1. EDUCATION AS A SOCIAL INSTITUTION  Education historically has had a large role in teaching and reinforcing gender identity  Assumptions of gender differences and white male hegemony still effect educational institutions today  Education can maintain stereotypes, inequalities, and privileges. “Education is political. Knowledge is not value free, nor is the process of acquiring it.”
  2. 2. INTERLOCKING INSTITUTIONS   Education effects and is effected by other institutions like workplaces, govern ments, family, and media. Governments in particular effect education. Title IX makes educational discrimination based on sex illegal. Title IX, Brian Rea
  3. 3. LOOKING BEYOND GENDER DIFFERENCES  Education has the power to challenge stereotypes and hegemonic, binary views of gender and sex.  Learning can be oppressive or empowering.  Western culture values rationality, scientific objectivity, and statistics.  Feminist epistemology offers a different perspective based on a theoretically-inclusive approach that embraces collaboration. “The institution of education is a creator and keeper of socially sanctioned and respected knowledge.”
  4. 4. How did your education shape your values? What impact does education have on families? On workplaces? What are the benefits to an intellectual approach that is inclusive rather than strictly rational?
  5. 5. TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS Teachers and administrators can, intentionally or unintentionally, make sex distinctions part of children’s identities through rhetoric, segregation, and oppositional activities. Lessons that emphasize competition or unfair attention/compensation given to one gender group can also reinforce these ideas, especially in young children.
  6. 6. GENDER AND SCHOOL SPORTS    Sports have generally been considered a masculine activity throughout history. Boys are able to define their masculinity through motion. Since the passage of Title IX, women’s athletics have become more widespread. Sports can improve girls’ performance, social skills, confidence, and more. Still, sports can be unwelcoming to students who don’t identify with narrow gender binary distinctions. Some female athletes face pressures to behave in a more traditionally feminine way.
  7. 7. EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS AND CURRICULA    Title IX led to a review of educational materials and eliminated many stereotypes, but some sexist tropes persist. Sex typing of subjects like shop or home economics, or even language arts and math, still occurs. Some professions like nursing or teaching are attached to certain genders in culture as well.
  8. 8. HIGHER EDUCATION  Men continue to hold more teaching positions at the college level and have a better time getting hired, receiving positive evaluations, and being promoted.  Professorship continues to be gendered as masculine. Professors who perform femininely may receive more negative feedback.
  9. 9. GENDER WARS IN EDUCATION    Many have argued that educational institutions have failed either boys or girls, but these are based on suppositions that learning needs differ by gender. Both boys and girls are shortchanged in the classroom. A viewpoint that shows boys and girls as competitors is not constructive. Sexism still does exist in schools, which can be disadvantageous to girls. Percentage of 8th grade students attaining writing achievement levels (NCES) Male Female 100 80 60 40 20 0 Below Basic At or Above Basic At or At Above Advanced Proficient “The gender gap in education exists for both girls and boys, but because they tend to be socialized in different ways and because observers have gendered expectations, the gender gaps tend to be manifested in different ways.”
  10. 10. SINGLE-SEX EDUCATION     Some education programs segregate boys and girls in classes, grades, or buildings. Single-sex education has a foundation of stereotypical assumptions about gender. Most of the documented improvements reported by single-se education proponents can be attributed to smaller class sizes and improved teaching strategies. This methodology can reinforce out of date ideas about gender and sex, promote male privilege, and exclude students who may not fit into a strict gender binary perspective.
  11. 11. PEER PRESSURE    Students exert pressure on those who don’t join samesex social groups. Boys tend to enforce notions of masculinity on other boys, and girls enforce notions of femininity for other girls. Peer groups have considerable influence over adolescents. As teens construct their identities through interaction, sexuality and gender/sex become linked.
  12. 12. BULLYING AND HARASSMENT  Bullying is usually perpetrated by older children against younger/weaker children or by boys against girls and effeminate boys.  Uncorrected, bullying can lead to more serious forms of abuse. It can create an environment that is hospitable to sexual harassment.  Girls experience sexual harassment more often than boys. 4 out of 5 students reported having been the target of harassment.  Female harassment tends to be less physical, and more verbal and social.  At the college level, females are the targets of sexual jokes, comments, gestures and looks, and males are the targets of gay and homophobic monikers.  An atmosphere of harassment and bullying is not conducive to learning. Bullying: Physical, psych ological, and/or verbal intimidation or attack that is meant to cause distress and/or harm to an intended victim.
  13. 13. SEXUAL VIOLENCE ON COLLEGE CAMPUSES    Between 1/5 and 1/4 of college women will be the victims of an attempted or completed sexual assault. Part of the problem on campuses is the abuse of alcohol. At least half of all violent crimes involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, the victim, or both. Aggressive language and competitive sex stories are a part of the masculine university culture. “The predominant culture’s definition of masculinity as aggressive, virile, and dominant perpetuates violence against women, LGBT persons, and other men.”
  14. 14. Do you remember ever playing boys vs. girls games in school? Have you had more male or female professors? What might be some benefits to single-sex education? Have you ever witnessed bullying or sexual harassment in school? What about sexual violence?
  15. 15. EMANCIPATORY EDUCATION Gender Sensitive Education: An inclusive, non-stereotypical environment, coupled with creating a community that welcomes diversity and directly addresses stereotypical assumptions about gender. Connected Teaching: Teaching is more effective when topics are linked to a learner’s actual experience and when a teacher is willing to engage with the class and recognize teaching moments when they occur. International Education of Girls: Global education programs look to counteract oppression by giving girls around the world unprecedented access to education. Illiteracy is linked with poverty, illness, unemployment, and violence and it is a problem that women face in particular. Investing in women is investing in entire families and communities.
  16. 16. What are some teaching strategies that could generate a more gender sensitive learning environment? Compare your teachers: does a connected teaching perspective help your learning?
  17. 17. BIBLIOGRAPHY "Basic Education and Gender Equality." UNICEF. N.p., 10 Oct. 2013. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. Cantoral, Eduardo. "News on Relevant Science." : 10 College Majors With the Biggest Gender Gap. News on Relevant Science, 2 July 2012. Web. 26 Nov. 2013. DeFrancisco, Victoria L., and Catherine Helen. Palczewski. "Education." Communicating Gender Diversity: A Critical Approach. Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2007. 175-97. Print. "Percentage of Students Attaining Writing Achievement Levels, by Grade Level and Selected Student Characteristics: 2002." Percentage of Students Attaining Writing Achievement Levels, by Grade Level and Selected Student Characteristics: 2002. National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2002. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. Rea, Brian. Title IX. 2012. Brian Rea. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.