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Lead is not included because data on lead emissions does not exist prior to 1970, and because lead emissions have declined so dramatically that it is no longer a national problem on the same scale as the other pollutants
EPA does not track historical levels of ground-level ozone, but it does track Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), which produce ozone in the air. Therefore VOCs are included but a direct measure of ground-level ozone is not included.
Modernization theory: a quadratic relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and air pollution (controlling for energy imports to rule OUT the pollution haven hypothesis).
Political Economy: a linear relationship between GDP and air pollution (controlling for energy imports to rule IN the pollution haven hypothesis).
Political Hypotheses Air Pollution Environmental Movement Environmental Policy Political Opportunities These relationships will hold (but possibly decrease) when controlling for economic factors
Descriptive Statistics Table 1. Descriptive statistics for all variables (n = 50). Variable Mean S.D. Skewness Kurtosis Air Pollution: Standardized Index of Sulfur Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide and Volatile Organic Compounds 0.00 0.97 0.215 0.010 Nitrogen Oxides 0.00 1 0.112 0.000 Particulate matter smaller than 10 µm 0.00 1 0.908 0.000 Real Gross Domestic Product per 1000 people (billions) 0.021 0.006 0.347 0.006 Strength of the Environmental Movement Environmental Social Movement Organizations per 1000 people 0.008 0.003 0.182 0.001 Sierra Club membership per 1000 people 0.896 0.837 0.083 0.001
Descriptive Statistics Table 1 continued. Descriptive statistics for all variables (n = 50). Variable Mean S.D. Skewness Kurtosis Political Opportunity % Northern Democrats in Congress 38.98 5.74 0.045 0.814 Democratic President 0.440 0.501 0.441 . Congressional Hearings on the Environment (Logged) 3.70 0.93 0.308 0.004 Divided Government 0.60 0.49 0.201 0.000 New York Times mentions of Energy or the Environment (Logged) 2.99 0.71 0.264 0.808 Environmental Policy (Logged) 1.92 0.85 0.108 0.905 % Energy Imports (Trillion BTUs) 17.741 8.361 0.660 0.000