The Cultural Approach to Cognition VYGOTSKY’S THEORY
COGNITION AND CULTURE Culture provides the tools which would shape how children think and what they think about. The socio-cultural theories of cognitive development.
LEV VYGOTSKY (1896-1934)(1) A Russian psychologist.(2) Studied the cultural factors that differ among children.
VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE THE SOCIAL SOURCE OF INDIVIDUAL’S THINKING : (1) DEVELOPMENT OCCURS IN SOCIAL INTERACTIONS (2) COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IS MEDIATED BY CULTURAL TOOLS
(1) DEVELOPMENT OCCURS IN SOCIAL INTERACTIONS Socially shared activities. Example: pointing
Two Levels of Knowledge DEVELOPMENT IS THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF SOCIALLY SHARED ACTIVITIES INTO INTERNALIZED PROCESSES INTERMENTAL LEVEL INTRAMENTAL LEVEL
IMPORTANT POINTS Individual Reciprocal Development InteractionsINTRAMENTAL INTERMENTAL LEVEL LEVEL Internalization OF SOCIALLY SHARED ACTIVITIES
(2) COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IS MEDIATED BY CULTURAL TOOLS.Technical Tools Examples: (1) the invention of paper and memory, (2) computers and word processing.Psychological Tools (the tools of thinking) 1. Conceptualization systems (calendars, clocks, maps, etc.) 2. Language
PIAGET AND VYGOSKY COMPARED PIAGET VYGOTSKY STUDIED UNIVERSAL STUDIED CULTURAL PATTERNS OF PATTERNS OF COGNITIVE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT THE CHILD AS THE CONSTRUCTOR OF THE CHILD AS THE CO- KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTOR OF KNOWEDGE
THE ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE ACTUAL DEVELOPMENAL LEVEL AS DETERMINED BY INDEPENDENT PROBLEM SOLVING AND THE LEVEL OF POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT AS DETERMINED THROUGH PROBLEM SOLVING UNDER ADULT GUIDDANCE OR IN COLLABORATION WITH MORE CAPABLE PEERS.
LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT PIAGET VYGOTSKY Learning is subordinate Learning proceeds to development. development. The concept of readiness The concept of guided participation and scaffolding
How Do You Scaffold? Model performance. Pair advanced learners with developing ones. Provide prompts, links, suggestions, guides.
Cognitive and Social Constructivism See Chapter 9, p. 310 Cognitive Constructivism Social Constructivism Vygotsky’s Theory: Piaget’s Theory: (1) THE SOCIAL SOURCE OF (1) LEARNERS ARE INDIVIDUAL’S THINKING ACTIVE IN (2) DEVELOPMENT IS THE CONSTRUCTING THEIR TRANSFORMATIONS OF OWN KNOWLEDGE SOCIALLY SHARED ACTIVITIES INTO (2) SOCIAL INTERNALIZED INTERACTIONS ARE PROCESSES IMPORTANT TO KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTIONS
PIAGET /VYGOTSKY CHILD IS ACTIVE AND CHILD IS ACTIVE AND CONSTRUCTS CO-CONSTRUCTS KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE SECOND WAVE FIRST WAVE CONSTRUCTIVISM CONSTRUCTIVISM THE FOCUS IS ON THE FOCUS IS ON GROUP LEARNING AND INDIVIDUAL LEARNING ON THE SOCIAL AND AND THE CULTURAL SOURCES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL KNOWING SOURCES OF KNOWING See Table 9.2, p. 313
HOW IS KNOLWEDGE CONSTRUCTED?PIAGET - Internal – • PERSONAL EXPLORATIONINTERNAL Knowledge is not a “mirror”DIRECTION of realityKnowledge is Experience- organization-constructed structural • SELF DISCOVERY transformationsby • VS • DIRECT TEACHINGtransforming,organizing, reorganizingexistingmentalstructures.
VYGOSKY Knowledge is • Personal -EXTERNAL constructed based on exploration AND social interpretations INTERNAL and experience. It is embedded in social DIRECTION filtered by cultural encounters beliefs, language, etc.Knowledgeisconstructe Knowledge grows • Guidedd based on through the discovery, Problem interactions of internalsocial (cognitive) and based learning andinteraction external collaboration affect (cultural/social)s and factors learningexperience.