Ppt race and ethnic variations revised
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  • Majority in all states, except hawaii.

Ppt race and ethnic variations revised Ppt race and ethnic variations revised Presentation Transcript

  • Agenda
    • Discuss midterm results
    • Feedback
    • Race and Ethnic Variations
  • Midterm
    • Mean= 70.5%
    • Grades are posted
    • If you would like to see the exam, you can come to my office
    • Remember your midterm is only 20% of your overall grade
    • Overall class mean= 77%
  • Questions everyone received points for…
    • 9. Compared to women in monogamous marriages, women in polygamous marriages have
    • 10. Polyandry…
    • 14. In 2006, the median family income for Americans was:
    • 25. Which type of capital refers to the skills and abilities one has accumulated such as abilities to read, write, and perform quantitative operations?
    • 56.The major conceptual tools for time analysis in the developmental frame of reference is the
    View slide
  • Challenging questions
    • 31. When a researcher establishes that one variable preceded another in time, s/he has established
      • causal variation (28%)
      • causal ordering (27%)
      • spuriousness (8%)
      • Correlation (37%)
    View slide
  • Challenging questions
    • 62. Dr. Anguiano is collecting survey data on students from CSULA on perceived acculturative stress. He is interested in how African American college students perceive their environment and how that impacts their academic experience. He would like to talk about how his results reflect the African American experience in the US. Given his sample he may have issues with:
      • Interactions (3%)
      • Representativeness (38%)
      • construct validity (49%)
      • Population (9%)
  • Future questions…
    • Which of the following claims can be made when describing the feminization of poverty from a structural-functional frame of reference,
      • Women base their sense of self on the wage inequalities between men and women, creating feelings of worthlessness that cause them to experience higher rates of poverty. (6%)
      • The inadequate levels of support from fathers create an inevitable conflict in spousal relations causing women to experience higher rates of poverty.(20%)
      • Shifts in societal norms that affect the family institution, such as norms of marriage and divorce, are a threat to survival and contribute to the feminization of poverty. (62%)
      • The feminization of poverty cannot be analyzed from a structural-functional frame of reference. (12%)
  • Feedback
    • Has worked:
      • Discussion
      • Reflections
      • Activities
      • Powerpoints
      • Videos
    • Has not worked
      • Discussion
      • Reflections (key terms)
      • Activities
      • Midterm Questions
        • Tricky/Confusing
        • Reflected zero of the readings/Reflected only the readings
      • Readings
      • Misuse of laptops
      • Study guide
      • Time
    • Would like more:
      • Examples
      • Articles
      • Slower
      • (questions)
  • Reading Practices
  • Studying Practices
  • Studying Practices
  • Chapter 5: Race and Ethnic Variations
  • Race and Ethnicity
    • Race is a socially constructed classification system that assumes that physical differences represent genetic, biological, and psychological capabilities and predispositions.
    • Ethnicity refers to people from different cultural backgrounds.
  • National Institute of Health Racial/Ethnic classification
    • Ethnic Categories:
      • Hispanic or Latino: A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. The term “Spanish origin” can also be used in addition to “Hispanic or Latino.”
      • Not Hispanic or Latino
    • Racial Categories:
      • American Indian or Alaska Native: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North, Central, or South America, and who maintains tribal affiliations or community attachment.
      • Asian: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. (Note: Individuals from the Philippine Islands have been recorded as Pacific Islanders in previous data collection strategies.)
      • Black or African American: A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. Terms such as “Haitian” or “Negro” can be used in addition to “Black or African American.”
      • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.
      • White: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.
  • Historical Context
    • Cultural themes that distinguish minority from dominant race/ethnic groups in the US:
    • 1. Collectivism/communalism (vs. Individualism)
    • 2. Familism
    • 3. Patriachy
  • Assimilation and Acculturation
    • For minority groups in the U.S.:
    • Assimilation —integration into existing systems of social relationships.
    • Acculturation —adoption of dominant cultural values.
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zBRDoXqqLO4
  •  
  • What does acculturation mean at the individual level? Integrated/Bicultural (Stew) Separated/Segregated (“Barrio”) Marginalized (Invisible) Assimilated (Melting Pot) Majority Minority
  • Ecological Conditions
    • Race and ethnic differences may be the result of ecological conditions brought about by prior historical experience. These include:
      • Social class
      • Prejudice
      • Discrimination
      • Segregation
  • Percent of Population with a Bachelor’s Degree or Higher by Hispanic Origin: 2000 Percent (Population 25 years and over) Source: Current Population Survey, March 2000, PGP-4
  • Prejudice and Discrimination
    • Prejudice refers to negative impressions and bias towards minority group members.
    • Discrimination refers to negative and exclusionary behaviors towards minority group members.
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AR3vB2X21kE&feature=related
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bf2LB0IG1xo
  • 12.6% of the US population 2010 Census http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EV20s2giItQ&feature=related
  • African Americans
    • Until 2001, w ere the Largest Racial-Ethnic Minority Group in the U.S. ( 12.5% of U.S. Population
    • Not a Uniform Entity, but a Very Diverse Group
    • Understood Within a Particular Social and Historical Context
  • Historical Transitions Affecting African American Families
    • From Africa to the United States
    • From Slavery to Emancipation
    • From Rural/Southern to Urban/Northern Areas
  • From Africa to the U.S.
    • The three relevant factors in this transition are:
      • Color –Skin tone has always had significant effects on educational attainment, occupation, and income.
      • Cultural Discontinuity –Culture disrupted by slavery and social conditions in the U.S.
      • Slavery –African Americans did not choose to come here.
  • From Slavery to Emancipation
    • The Emancipation Proclamation and the end of slavery resulted in three patterns of family life:
      • Tenant farmers;
      • Skilled laborers; and
      • Disrupted families.
  • From the Rural South to the Urban North
    • This geographic shift resulted in:
      • Metropolitan/urban residence
      • Heavy concentrations of poverty
      • Disruption of nuclear families
      • Geographic separation from extended families
      • Increased access to schools, social services, and medical facilities
  •  
  • Socioeconomic Context
    • Black Americans have realized tremendous gains in recent years.
    • Disparities still exist in:
      • Employment
      • Income
      • Education levels
  • For example…
  • Two Patterns of African American Family
    • Matricentric —Female headed with males who come and go and who may struggle with unemployment and incarceration.
      • 55-60% of the African American Population
    • Two-parent —Males are likely to have more stable employment and assume an active role in decision-making and child-rearing responsibilities.
    • There is a wide range of family structures beyond these two patterns
  • African American Parents and Children
    • Parenting
      • Importance of extended family and kin
      • Hierarchical
      • Harsh discipline
    • Challenges
      • Economic conditions
      • Social prejudices and bigotry
  • 16.3% of the US population 2010 Census
  • Hispanic American Families
    • The Hispanic American population includes people of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, South and Central American, and Spanish origin.
    • The Hispanic American population is the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority population in the U.S.
  • Common Characteristics of Hispanic American Families
    • Collectivism/communalism —The incorporation of friends and extended family members into the lives of parents and children ( compadrazgo )
    • Familism —High levels of obligation and responsibility to family members
    • Patriarchy —Emphasis on male leadership ( machismo ) and female subordination ( marianism )
  • Socioeconomic Context
    • Socioeconomic conditions vary widely between Hispanic groups
      • Cubans are best off financially
      • Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans have higher rates of poverty
  • Patterns of Hispanic Family Life
    • Hispanic families fall between Blacks and Whites in percentages of both married couple and single parent families.
    • Female-headed families are more likely to be poor.
    • Male-female roles are changing.
    • Levels of extended family integration are higher than for White Americans.
  • Mexican Cuban Puerto Rican Central and South American Family Households by Type and Hispanic Origin Group: 2000 Source: Current Population Survey, March 2000, PGP-4 Female householder, no spouse present Married couple Male householder, no spouse present
  • Hispanic Parents and Children
    • Parenting
      • Hierarchical parenting style
      • Cultural Values: relationships, respect, responsibility
    • Challenges
      • Parents may be challenged to apply new child-rearing scripts
  • 4.8% of the US population 2010 Census
  • Asian American Families
    • Chinese
    • Filipino
    • Asian Indian
    • Vietnamese
    • Korean
    • Hawaiian
    • Samoan
    • Japanese
    • Thai
    • Laotian
    • Cambodian
    • Hmong
    • Guamanian
  •  
  • Historical and Socioeconomic Context
    • Compared to White non-Hispanics, Asian Americans as a group are younger, better educated, and have higher median family incomes.
    • Within this group there are substantial differences in ancestry, language, culture, immigration, and residence patterns.
  • Marital/Family Patterns
    • Asian American Families are Characterized by:
      • High Marriage Rates
      • Low Divorce Rates
      • Strong Kinship Associations
      • Care of the Elderly
      • Children who Tend Toward Cultural Assimilation
  • Asian American Parents and Children
    • Parenting
      • Parents often adopt the Confucian training doctrine in child rearing.
    • Challenges
      • Model minority
  • 0.9% of the US population 2010 Census
  • Native American Families
    • Hundreds of Distinct Tribes or Nations
    • Over Half Live on Tribal Designated Areas, Reservations, or Trust Lands
    • Increased Numbers of Native Americans Because of:
      • Rising Birth Rates
      • Reduced Infant Mortality
      • More People Identifying as Native American
  •  
  • Historical Context
    • Native Americans were the most disrupted of any minority group in the United States because:
      • Tribal lands were forcibly taken and others franchised to Christian groups for proselytizing;
      • Educational systems were designed to separate children from families and instill non-native values; and
      • The federal government attempted to break up tribal landholdings and turn Native Americans into individual landowners and taxpayers.
  • Socioeconomic Context
    • Lower median age
    • Shorter life expectancy
    • Low educational achievement
    • Under- and unemployment
    • Poor housing conditions
  • Marital/Family Patterns
    • Low Marriage Rates
    • High Rates of Interracial Marriage
    • Strong Kinship Ties
    • Extended Family Support Networks
    • Less Rigid Gender Roles
    • High Status for Elders
  • Native American Parents and Children
    • Parenting
      • Influenced by reservation life.
      • Children are viewed as treasured gifts; individual differences are tolerated and accepted.
      • Parenting style perceived to be permissive but is not
    • Challenges
      • Influenced by reservation life.
      • Poverty
  • 72.4% of the US population 2010 Census
  • Caucasian (non-Hispanic)
    • Make up a large percentage of the U. S. population (64% are white non-Hispanic)
    • Racial category created by the census
    • Includes immigrants of Europe, Middle East, and Northern Africa
    • Largest ancestry groups:
      • German Americans (16.5%)
      • Irish Americans (11.9%)
      • English Americans (9.0%)
      • Italian Americans (5.8%)
      • Polish Americans (3.3%)
    • Of all ethnic/racial groups, Caucasians have the largest gender inequality in median income
  • Caucasian (non-Hispanic)
  • Caucasian American Parents and Children
    • Parenting
      • Parents follow values of individualism, that highlight independence, self-reliance, self-interest, and autonomy
    • Challenges
      • Maintaining ancestral culture