Ppt race and ethnic variations revisedPresentation Transcript
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Race and Ethnic Variations
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Questions everyone received points for…
9. Compared to women in monogamous marriages, women in polygamous marriages have
14. In 2006, the median family income for Americans was:
25. Which type of capital refers to the skills and abilities one has accumulated such as abilities to read, write, and perform quantitative operations?
56.The major conceptual tools for time analysis in the developmental frame of reference is the
31. When a researcher establishes that one variable preceded another in time, s/he has established
causal variation (28%)
causal ordering (27%)
62. Dr. Anguiano is collecting survey data on students from CSULA on perceived acculturative stress. He is interested in how African American college students perceive their environment and how that impacts their academic experience. He would like to talk about how his results reflect the African American experience in the US. Given his sample he may have issues with:
construct validity (49%)
Which of the following claims can be made when describing the feminization of poverty from a structural-functional frame of reference,
Women base their sense of self on the wage inequalities between men and women, creating feelings of worthlessness that cause them to experience higher rates of poverty. (6%)
The inadequate levels of support from fathers create an inevitable conflict in spousal relations causing women to experience higher rates of poverty.(20%)
Shifts in societal norms that affect the family institution, such as norms of marriage and divorce, are a threat to survival and contribute to the feminization of poverty. (62%)
The feminization of poverty cannot be analyzed from a structural-functional frame of reference. (12%)
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Chapter 5: Race and Ethnic Variations
Race and Ethnicity
Race is a socially constructed classification system that assumes that physical differences represent genetic, biological, and psychological capabilities and predispositions.
Ethnicity refers to people from different cultural backgrounds.
National Institute of Health Racial/Ethnic classification
Hispanic or Latino: A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. The term “Spanish origin” can also be used in addition to “Hispanic or Latino.”
Not Hispanic or Latino
American Indian or Alaska Native: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North, Central, or South America, and who maintains tribal affiliations or community attachment.
Asian: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. (Note: Individuals from the Philippine Islands have been recorded as Pacific Islanders in previous data collection strategies.)
Black or African American: A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. Terms such as “Haitian” or “Negro” can be used in addition to “Black or African American.”
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.
White: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.
Cultural themes that distinguish minority from dominant race/ethnic groups in the US:
1. Collectivism/communalism (vs. Individualism)
Assimilation and Acculturation
For minority groups in the U.S.:
Assimilation —integration into existing systems of social relationships.
Acculturation —adoption of dominant cultural values.
What does acculturation mean at the individual level? Integrated/Bicultural (Stew) Separated/Segregated (“Barrio”) Marginalized (Invisible) Assimilated (Melting Pot) Majority Minority
Race and ethnic differences may be the result of ecological conditions brought about by prior historical experience. These include:
Percent of Population with a Bachelor’s Degree or Higher by Hispanic Origin: 2000 Percent (Population 25 years and over) Source: Current Population Survey, March 2000, PGP-4
Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudice refers to negative impressions and bias towards minority group members.
Discrimination refers to negative and exclusionary behaviors towards minority group members.
12.6% of the US population 2010 Census http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EV20s2giItQ&feature=related
Until 2001, w ere the Largest Racial-Ethnic Minority Group in the U.S. ( 12.5% of U.S. Population
Not a Uniform Entity, but a Very Diverse Group
Understood Within a Particular Social and Historical Context
Historical Transitions Affecting African American Families
From Africa to the United States
From Slavery to Emancipation
From Rural/Southern to Urban/Northern Areas
From Africa to the U.S.
The three relevant factors in this transition are:
Color –Skin tone has always had significant effects on educational attainment, occupation, and income.
Cultural Discontinuity –Culture disrupted by slavery and social conditions in the U.S.
Slavery –African Americans did not choose to come here.
From Slavery to Emancipation
The Emancipation Proclamation and the end of slavery resulted in three patterns of family life:
Skilled laborers; and
From the Rural South to the Urban North
This geographic shift resulted in:
Heavy concentrations of poverty
Disruption of nuclear families
Geographic separation from extended families
Increased access to schools, social services, and medical facilities
Black Americans have realized tremendous gains in recent years.
Disparities still exist in:
Two Patterns of African American Family
Matricentric —Female headed with males who come and go and who may struggle with unemployment and incarceration.
55-60% of the African American Population
Two-parent —Males are likely to have more stable employment and assume an active role in decision-making and child-rearing responsibilities.
There is a wide range of family structures beyond these two patterns
African American Parents and Children
Importance of extended family and kin
Social prejudices and bigotry
16.3% of the US population 2010 Census
Hispanic American Families
The Hispanic American population includes people of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, South and Central American, and Spanish origin.
The Hispanic American population is the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority population in the U.S.
Common Characteristics of Hispanic American Families
Collectivism/communalism —The incorporation of friends and extended family members into the lives of parents and children ( compadrazgo )
Familism —High levels of obligation and responsibility to family members
Patriarchy —Emphasis on male leadership ( machismo ) and female subordination ( marianism )
Socioeconomic conditions vary widely between Hispanic groups
Cubans are best off financially
Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans have higher rates of poverty
Patterns of Hispanic Family Life
Hispanic families fall between Blacks and Whites in percentages of both married couple and single parent families.
Female-headed families are more likely to be poor.
Male-female roles are changing.
Levels of extended family integration are higher than for White Americans.
Mexican Cuban Puerto Rican Central and South American Family Households by Type and Hispanic Origin Group: 2000 Source: Current Population Survey, March 2000, PGP-4 Female householder, no spouse present Married couple Male householder, no spouse present
Hispanic Parents and Children
Hierarchical parenting style
Cultural Values: relationships, respect, responsibility
Parents may be challenged to apply new child-rearing scripts
4.8% of the US population 2010 Census
Asian American Families
Historical and Socioeconomic Context
Compared to White non-Hispanics, Asian Americans as a group are younger, better educated, and have higher median family incomes.
Within this group there are substantial differences in ancestry, language, culture, immigration, and residence patterns.
Asian American Families are Characterized by:
High Marriage Rates
Low Divorce Rates
Strong Kinship Associations
Care of the Elderly
Children who Tend Toward Cultural Assimilation
Asian American Parents and Children
Parents often adopt the Confucian training doctrine in child rearing.
0.9% of the US population 2010 Census
Native American Families
Hundreds of Distinct Tribes or Nations
Over Half Live on Tribal Designated Areas, Reservations, or Trust Lands
Increased Numbers of Native Americans Because of:
Rising Birth Rates
Reduced Infant Mortality
More People Identifying as Native American
Native Americans were the most disrupted of any minority group in the United States because:
Tribal lands were forcibly taken and others franchised to Christian groups for proselytizing;
Educational systems were designed to separate children from families and instill non-native values; and
The federal government attempted to break up tribal landholdings and turn Native Americans into individual landowners and taxpayers.
Lower median age
Shorter life expectancy
Low educational achievement
Under- and unemployment
Poor housing conditions
Low Marriage Rates
High Rates of Interracial Marriage
Strong Kinship Ties
Extended Family Support Networks
Less Rigid Gender Roles
High Status for Elders
Native American Parents and Children
Influenced by reservation life.
Children are viewed as treasured gifts; individual differences are tolerated and accepted.
Parenting style perceived to be permissive but is not
Influenced by reservation life.
72.4% of the US population 2010 Census
Make up a large percentage of the U. S. population (64% are white non-Hispanic)
Racial category created by the census
Includes immigrants of Europe, Middle East, and Northern Africa
Largest ancestry groups:
German Americans (16.5%)
Irish Americans (11.9%)
English Americans (9.0%)
Italian Americans (5.8%)
Polish Americans (3.3%)
Of all ethnic/racial groups, Caucasians have the largest gender inequality in median income
Caucasian American Parents and Children
Parents follow values of individualism, that highlight independence, self-reliance, self-interest, and autonomy