Ppt non marital relationship

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  • 1. Agenda
    • Share your Race & Ethnic Variations chart
    • Changing Gender Roles- Questions
    • Premarital Relationships
  • 2. Chapter 7: Premarital and Non-Marital Relationships
  • 3. What are premarital relationships?
  • 4. Socio-Cultural Context of Non-Marital Relationships
    • Non-marital and premarital relationships have become increasingly ambiguous.
      • Process is filled with uncertainty and risk.
      • Norms regarding mate selection are changing.
      • More emphasis on the expressive self ; less emphasis on institutional regulation.
  • 5. What is love?
  • 6. Love
    • Love is a socially constructed concept because it takes on different meanings, importance, and behaviors according to the social context in which it is used.
    • Love that supports marriage and family has emotional, cognitive, relational, and behavioral aspects.
  • 7. Aspects of Love
    • Emotional
    • Cognitive
    • Relational
    • Behavioral
  • 8. Individualistic Explanations of Partner Selection
    • Instinctive and biological theories are rooted in evolutionary instinct, genetic similarity, and unconscious needs and drives.
      • E.g. mating and ovulation
    • Parental image theories assume that individuals select mates similar to their opposite-sex parent.
      • E.g. psychoanalitical theory
    • Complementary needs theories assume that people choose others who meet their psychological needs.
  • 9. Socio-cultural Explanations of Partner Selection
    • Value Theory—Interpersonal attraction results from having similar values.
    • Role Theory—People who share similar role definitions and expectations are more likely to partner.
    • Exchange Theory—Persons will partner when benefits outweigh costs for each.
    • Sequential Theories—view movement toward marriage or cohabitation as a series of changing criteria, stages, or patterned regularities.
  • 10. Stimulus-Value-Role (SVR) Theory
    • Couples pass through three stages prior to marriage.
      • Stimulus –Individuals are drawn to each other based on external characteristics.
      • Example
      • Value –If mutual attraction occurs, partners compare values.
      • Role –If values are similar, partners begin to confide in each other, fulfill tasks, and evaluate each other as potential spouses.
  • 11. From Single to Married
    • The process is youth-centered and competitive.
    • It occurs in a series of stages with differing commitment levels.
    • The rules, goals, and strategies of the “game” are different for males and females.
    • Communication often takes the form of nonverbal cues, signs, gestures and other symbolic movements.
      • Example
  • 12. How would you describe dating?
  • 13. How would you describe hooking-up?
  • 14. Hooking Up and Dating
    • Traditional dating is becoming more infrequent.
    • Hooking up , physical contact or intercourse without commitment, is becoming more common.
    • Hanging out in a group where individuals do not make their interests in each other explicit is also becoming the norm.
  • 15. Hooking Up and Dating
    • Internet chat rooms or personals ads
    • Dating scripts still tend to be fairly traditional, with men exerting greater control
    • Waller’s Principle of Least Interest suggests that the partner who is less interested in continuing the relationship controls the relationship.
      • HJNTIY
  • 16. Interactional Patterns of Hooking up
    • Receive support from same-sex friends
    • Some research suggests it is more common among men
    • Does not have an impact on psychological well-being.
    • Impacts sexual behaviors
  • 17. Engagement
    • Engagement is the final transition in the process from single to married.
    • It is a ritual that:
      • Implies dating exclusiveness;
      • Reinforces the importance of the couple relationship; and
      • Involves a financial and symbolic commitment.
  • 18. Non-Marital Cohabitation
    • Non-marital cohabitation has become an important step in the courtship process.
    • In 2006, there were 4.7 million unmarried heterosexual couple households in the U.S.
    • More than half of first unions in the 1990’s were cohabiting, rather than marriage.
  • 19. Methodological Concerns
    • Self-selection bias may influence findings on cohabitation.
    • The meanings of cohabitation are less clear than the meanings of marriage.
  • 20. Interactional Patterns of Cohabitation
    • Compared to married persons, cohabitors:
      • Have more liberal gender roles;
      • Are more likely to keep finances separate;
      • Less likely to own homes;
      • More likely to experience relationship violence;
      • Have a lower desire to marry; and
      • Are less likely to ever marry.
    • Does not serve as a successful trial for marriage
    • Lower-quality marriages and are more likely to divorce (may be due to self-selection bias).
  • 21. Chapter 8: Sexuality and Non-Marital Relationships
  • 22. Regulation of Sexual Relationships
    • Sexual relationships are regulated by:
      • Institutions such as family, religion, and education;
      • Social norms, statuses and roles, and social sanctions; and
      • Differing expectations, rights, and privileges by gender, age, marital status, and sexual orientation
  • 23. Biological versus Sociological Approaches
    • Biological approaches emphasize anatomical, hormonal, and chemical factors relevant to sexual drives, needs and responses.
    • Sociological explanations focus on socialization and social context.
  • 24. Social Dimensions of Sexuality
    • Social Network Theory focuses on the sexual dyad within a larger network of social relationships.
      • Home, School, or Neighborhood
    • Choice Theory explains sexual decision making in terms of available resources, behavioral goals, and potential rewards versus costs.
    • Sexual Scripting Theory explains how people construct sexual ideas through social interaction.
  • 25. Sexual Orientation
    • Sexual Orientation is an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectional attraction to another person.
      • Heterosexuals are attracted to the opposite sex.
      • Homosexuals are attracted to the same sex.
      • Bisexuals are attracted to both sexes.
  • 26. Origins of Sexual Orientation
    • Sexual orientation results from a complex interplay of biological, cognitive, and environmental factors.
    • Both appear early in life.
    • Individuals have little choice in their sexual orientation.
  • 27. Heteronormativity
    • Heteronormativity social process whereby the rules or scripts for acceptable social behavior are constructed by labeling unacceptable behaviors and attaching negative images and sanctions to those labels.
      • Defines ‘normal’ sexuality as heterosexual
      • Assumes that non-heterosexual sexuality is ‘deviant’
      • Assumes that everyone is heterosexual
    • What are the implications of heteronormativity?
  • 28. Non-Marital Sexual Behavior
    • Antecedents of sexual behavior are factors that precede a given sexual activity.
      • Biological antecedents include age and sexual maturation.
      • Psychological antecedents include cognitive and emotional development.
      • Social antecedents include family and peers, religion, and cultural norms.
  • 29. Family Antecedents of Sexual Behavior
    • Families are central in:
      • Forming sexual attitudes and behaviors
      • Teaching standards of sexual conduct
      • Providing role models
      • Promoting a healthy environment
    • Neither parental attitudes nor parent-child communication affect the sexual and contraceptive behavior of teens .
    • Both lenient and strict parental disciplinary styles result in greater child sexual permissiveness.
  • 30. Non-Family Influences on Sexual Behavior
    • Reference group theory posits that we form and re-form our self concepts and experiences based on reactions we receive from others in our social network.
    • When children reach adolescence, peer sexual behaviors and attitudes gain in importance.
    • Using alcohol or drugs greatly increases the risk of early sexual activity.
  • 31. Formal Sex Education
    • The decision to engage in sexual behavior is not influenced by sex education classes.
    • Formal sex education seems to have some effect on knowledge about, and effective use of, contraceptives.
      • Abstinence only vs Comprehensive
  • 32. Premarital Sexual Intercourse
    • Involves at least one partner who is single and has not been previously married.
    • First sexual intercourse in the U.S.:
      • Most often occurs within a ‘hooking up’ or dating context;
      • Is usually an unplanned event;
      • Seldom includes the use of contraceptives; and
      • Is often not pleasurable, especially for women.
  • 33. Changes in Premarital Sexual Activity
    • Premarital sexual activity has increased since 1971, but at a much slower rate since 1980.
    • Changes are more pronounced for females:
      • Greater permissiveness
      • Fewer male/female differences
      • Double standard remains in place
  • 34. High Risk Sexual Behavior
  • 35. Chlamydia
  • 36. Gonorrhea
  • 37. HPV
  • 38. High Risk Sexual Behavior and AIDS
    • More than 80% of AIDS cases in the U.S. are males age 20 and over.
    • High risk behavior is most common among:
      • Men
      • Young people
      • Unmarried people
  • 39. Influence of AIDS on American Sexuality
    • Increased selectivity of sexual partners
    • Greater condom usage
    • NOT abstention from sexual activity