Engaged Learning:Cooperation and Community CHDV 343
Beyond Vygotsky, Piaget and IPModel The concept of “culture” and cognitive functioning. The social systems that influence development and cognitive E WORK OF URIE BROFENBRENNER ; 1989-2000)
The Bio-EcologicalModel of Human • BIO= Human beings bring theirDevelopment biological selves to the developmental process. • ECOLOGICAL = the recognition that the social contexts in which we develop are ECOSYSTEMS.
The Theory “Ecological systems theory views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment.” “Bio-ecological” model (Bronfenbrenner & Evans, 2000).
ALL RELATIONSHIPS ARE RECIPROCAL (they flow in bothdirections)
MICROSYSTEM (a) specific physical andTheinnermost material elements, (b) face-level, the to face interactions withmicrosystem other people (parents,consists of teachers, friends) who haveactivities andinteraction particular personalities,patterns in temperaments, and beliefthe child‟s systems.immediatesurroundings
Home in relation toMESOSYSTEM school, neighborhood inThe second relation to social life.level of themodel, themesosystem spans the Does the peer groupconnections contradict or support thebetween parent‟s belief system?microsystems.
EXOSYSTEM Religious institutions,Theexosystem is parents‟ social networks,made up of health and welfare servicessocialsettings that in the community, parents‟do not workplace.includechildrendirectly butaffect theirexperiencesin immediatesettings.
MACROSYSTEMThemacrosystem is Consider the effects of themade up ofhistorical feminist movement.events, culturalvalues, laws, The establishment ofcustoms andresources. educationalA general policies, children‟s welfarecultural policies.“blueprint” thatstructures theactivities andvalues occurringin lower levels.
Chronosystem The birth of siblings, movingThe to a new neighborhoodchronosystemcapturesthetemporaldimensionof themodel.
IMPLICATIONS FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND TEACHERS(1)The relationships (2)There are between systems are DYNAMIC FORCES RECIPROCAL that affect individual development(3) TheMicorsystem andMesosystem inrelation to socio-cognitivedevelopment.
IMPORTANT MICROSYSTEMS FAMILY SCHOOL (school culture, teaching styles) (Nuclear family, blended family, divorce, parenting styles) BAUMRIND (1991) PEER GROUPS (peer- Authoritarian = parental culture, peer power and a detached aggression, bullying) attitude. Instrumental Aggression = Permissive = limited control no clear intention to cause and love and affection. harm. Authoritative=high levels of Hostile Aggression: both warmth and achievement demands. bold, direct actions intending to harm (a) Rejecting-neglecting=a Overt, (b) relational disengaged style. WHY ARE THESE IMPORTANT TO COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING?
ENGAGING SCHOOLS “Although learning involves cognitive processes that take place within each individual, motivation to learn also depends on the students‟ involvement in a web of social relationships that supports learning.” “Thus, a focus on engagement calls attention to the connection between a learner and the social context in which learning takes place.”
TWO CRITICAL CONCEPTS FOR ENGAGED LEARNING Collaboration Cooperation A philosophy about how to deal with people A philosophy of how to that respects work with others to differences, shares attain a shared goal. authority and builds on the knowledge of „The majority of studies others. indicate that cooperative groups have positive effects on students See Ch. 9, p. 323 empathy, tolerance of differences, feelings of acceptance, self- confidence and even school attendance.‟
Basic Characteristics of Cooperative Learning Group Work Integral parts of group work: (i) Argumentation, (ii) Elaboration/interpretation/explanation, (iii) Appreciation of multiple perspectives. (i) SOCIAL SKILLS, (ii) TEAM BUILDING GOALS, (iii) INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY
Preparing Students for Cooperative Learning DAVID AND ROGER JOHNSON (1999) Five elements define true cooperative learning groups: 1. Face-to face interaction 2. Positive interdependence 3. Individual Accountability 4. Cooperative skills 5. Group Processing Australian research in grades 8 -12 indicates that in science, math and English students learned more in such groups.
• CULTURAL • FAMILY/TE BELIEFS ACHERS/PE affect what is ERS acceptable Influence and non- norms and acceptable values about school achievement. SOCIAL COGNITIVE PROCESSES IN LEARNING LEARNING• SCHOOL COOPERATIVE COMMUNITY LEARNING COLLABORATION • INDIVIDUAL Learning can be CHARACTERISTIC developed in S AND THE cooperative groups DEVELOPMENT through rehearsal OF SOCIAL SKILLS and elaboration . (IPM), • Respect for disequilibrium differences, and (Piaget) or conflict resolution scaffolding mechanisms. (Vygotsky).