Everything has to do with quantitative changes, more is better, bigger is better, more efficiency, more time and experience. Encoding (better attention spans, devices, being able to know how much they should focus, etc., better perceptions, can put meaning to more stimuli around them and therefore attend to them) Biological Maturation (they help the child use the tool in a more efficient way than when he was 2 or something. Like with a new computer, same tool, different connections). Working memory (aka short term memory. The moment information is processed automatically, that’s the moment where the child’s mind is free and has energy to attend to different things-automatization. We do have limited capabilities, we can’t process all the information in our environment. Therefore automatization is important because of our selective attention, we can attend to much more. The more automatization you have the more information you can process from your environment because it takes less effort). Long Term memory (if you don’t have a large knowledge base, it’ll be harder for you to relate and connect. Better ways to organize what information should be store in long term memory and do it in such an organized fashion that it can become easily retrieved.)
We need to find specific ways to attract their attention.
343 educational implications of ip model0
Educational Implications of IPModel CHDV 343 (9)
• EncodingCOGNITIVE (perception, attention)DEVELOPMENT • Biological MaturationAs children (specific increases ofgrow older efficiency due to thethey are able biological maturations ofto process brain connections)information • Working Memory (i) Automatization, (ii) Encodingmore rapidly (comparing, storing)and with more • Long Term Memory (activateefficiency. memories, efficient organizational skills, retrieve)
Encoding • Educational Aim: To gainAttention and maintain attention in relation to maturational factors. • (i) Use SignalsPerception • (ii) Reach out rather than call out • (iii) Provide clear instructions/objectives • (iv) Incorporate variety, curiosity and surprise • (v) Ask questions • (page 239)
Guideposts for working with School- Aged Children• ATTENTION• Selective attention improves with age.• (i) Attract their attention.• (ii) Help young children avoid distractions• (provide them with quiet work environments).• (iii)Organize main points and help children focus their attention to them.
Working • Educational Aim: ToMemory manage the cognitive load and keep the informationMaintenance activated.rehearsal • (i) Provide for repetition and review of information • (ii) Engage in Elaborative rehearsal: • (a) Present material in a clear, organized way. • (b) Help students separate essential from non-essential details.Elaborative • (c) Provide “chunking” as a methodrehearsal to circumvent the limited capacity of working memory.
Long Term Memory – The integration of new information with knowledge already stored in long term memory• Explicit Memory Semantic memory – meaningful memories stored as facts, concepts, propositions, and schemas. Episodic memory – sequence of events Our of awareness memories: action scripts, procedural• Implicit memory memories, classical conditioning memories.
Long Term • Educational Aim : (1) TheMemory development of efficientELABORATION strategies which link input(connects new to output: (a) Storinginformation toexisting) Information to Long term memory in an organizedORGANIZATION manner.(creating orderednetworks of relations) • (b)Retrieving InformationCONTEXT (physical oremotional backgroundassociated with anevent
Guideposts (continued)• KNOWLEDGE BASE (what children have stored in the long term memory)• (i) Increase knowledge base.• (ii) Relate new information to existing one in knowledge base.• (iii) Have realistic goals and organize new information to existing knowledge base.
15 OBJECTS• CARROT, TRUCK, BROCCOLI, BIKE, BUS, ICE- CREAM, PEAS, TRAIN, POTATO, CANDY, PUDDI NG, PLANE, SQUASH, SODA .
ORGANIZATION OF ITEMS (3)• VEGGIES• VEHICLES• SWEET-STUFF
Guideposts (cont.)• MEMORY (storing and retrieving)• Mnemonic Strategies :• (a) Rehearsal: 5 yrs and younger tend not to rehearse, 6-7 yrs engage in passive or single item rehearsal (dog, dog), middle childhood engage in active or multiple item rehearsal.• (b) Organization: Give mnemonic advice and teach mnemonic strategies.• (c) Discuss with children the strategies there are using to remember better and let them share their strategies with one another.
Acronyms: a form of abbreviation• Spelling Acronyms• The following mnemonics are sentences or phrases in which the initial letters of the words spell out a word which many people find rather tricky to spell.• BECAUSE Big Elephants Can Always Understand Small Elephants RHYTHM Rhythm Helps Your Two Hips Move• List Order Acronyms- Chain mnemonics• Order of colors in the rainbow, or visual spectrum: (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet) Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain.• Order of taxonomy in biology: (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species) Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach.
Mnemonic ExamplesRhyme Mnemonic for the number of days in each month:30 days hath September, April, June, and November.All the rest have 31Except February my dear son.It has 28 and that is fineBut in Leap Year it has 29.Image MnemonicModel Mnemonics (visual images and demonstrations)
The Process of Association and its Role in Memory• UNCONSIOUS and CONSIOUS Associations.• Help students associate what you are trying to make them learn with something they already know.• Look at Table 7.3 p. 258 for “Top Ten Tips for a Better Memory”.
Guideposts (cont.)• Cognitive Efficiency and Speed of Processing• 1. Biological Maturation• 2. Effects of Practice (eg. Repetition, Memorization, meaning )• 3. Automaticity
IPS in relation to the central Issues of Cognitive Development1. NATURE vs. NURTURE 2. QUALITATIVE vs. DEBATE QUANTITATIVE CHANGES 3. CRITICAL vs. SENSITIVE PERIODS 4. LEARNER’S OF DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY LEVEL an INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
Information Processing Perspective• The perspective • The perspective uses the recognizes equal computer as a metaphor contributions from nature for cognitive and nurture with development and children’s social and examines the role of cultural experiences attention and memory in influencing the type and how children process rate of skill development. information. Older children (middle school years) process information more quickly, exhibit improved attention, have extensive knowledge base, more automated skills, and use more sophisticated mnemonic strategies. Quantitative Cognitive Changes produce a more efficient, quicker and sophisticated learner.