200 children%e2%80%99s %20_assessment_shortened1


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200 children%e2%80%99s %20_assessment_shortened1

  1. 1. Psychoeducational Assessment of Children (Boehm, Unit II) <ul><li>Definition of assessment : </li></ul><ul><li>observing , evaluating , gathering , and recording information about a child in order to make decisions about his or her education. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Assessment: Why? <ul><li>Class : Why will you as teachers need to assess children? </li></ul><ul><li>What types of problems or challenges will make you think “This child needs to be evaluated or assessed?” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Assessment: Why? <ul><li>1. intelligence : mentally retarded (Downs syndrome), gifted, borderline IQ </li></ul>
  4. 4. Intelligence: The Bell Curve <ul><li>Above 130 = gifted </li></ul><ul><li>115-130 = superior </li></ul><ul><li>85-115 = average </li></ul><ul><li>70-85 = borderline or </li></ul><ul><li>slow learner </li></ul><ul><li>Below 70 mentally </li></ul><ul><li>retarded </li></ul>
  5. 5. Assessment: Why? <ul><li>2. language ability, communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>3. achievement level </li></ul>
  6. 6. Assessment: Why? <ul><li>4. social interactions : </li></ul><ul><li>Feels isolated </li></ul><ul><li>Is a bully </li></ul><ul><li>Is a victim </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty relating appropriately to others </li></ul><ul><li>Too aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>Too shy, timid </li></ul>
  7. 7. Assessment: Why? <ul><li>Social interactions (cont.) : </li></ul><ul><li>Loneliness, isolation, </li></ul><ul><li>Low self-esteem </li></ul>
  8. 8. Assessment (Boehm, Unit II) <ul><li>Teachers are the primary assessors of children – not tests! </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2 Types of Assessment: Formal & Informal <ul><li>1. Formal: </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized tests : </li></ul><ul><li>A. Intelligence (IQ Test: Stanford Binet) administered to identify : mental retardation, learning disabilities, giftedness, placement, & part of a clinical evaluation) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Academic Achievement test to identify what child has learned in a certain grade </li></ul>
  10. 10. Formal Assessments : tests <ul><li>C. Readiness for next grade </li></ul><ul><li>D. Screening for a diagnosis: ex., learning Dx, </li></ul><ul><li>Personality tests </li></ul><ul><li>Aptitude tests: to identify child’s strengths, talents, weak area </li></ul>
  11. 11. Formal testing
  12. 12. Testing Guidelines (NAEYC: ages 3-8) <ul><li>1. A test should not be used to determine school entry or readiness </li></ul><ul><li>2. A test cannot be the only criterion for retaining a child in kindergarten or placing him or her in special education programs </li></ul>
  13. 13. Testing Guidelines <ul><li>3. If testing is to be done, children must be tested in their native language. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Informal Assessment <ul><li>2. Informal assessment : </li></ul><ul><li>done by teachers; used much more than formal methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on observations, checklists, rating scales, parent interviews </li></ul>
  15. 15. Additional Informal Assessments <ul><li>10 Alternatives to Standardized tests : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Developmental checklists : </li></ul><ul><li>art, language, math, scientific thinking, music, physical development, social studies </li></ul>
  16. 16. 2. Work Samples
  17. 17. Work samples
  18. 18. 3. Displays of Children’s Work Projects
  19. 19. Informal Assessments <ul><li>4. Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>5. Conferences with parents </li></ul>
  20. 21. Informal Assessments <ul><li>6. Performances: </li></ul><ul><li>anecdotal records </li></ul>
  21. 22. Informal Assessments <ul><li>7. Audio, video tapes or photos </li></ul><ul><li>8. Portfolios of children’s work </li></ul><ul><li>9. Anecdotal records </li></ul><ul><li>10. Summary reports </li></ul>
  22. 25. TEACHERS: Being Alert to Indicators of psychosocial & mental health problems: <ul><li>Most teachers know which students probably are headed for trouble. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers do better in identifying high-risk children of any age when they have a systematic way of describing kids’ behavior and know just what to look for. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Being Alert to Indicators of psychosocial & mental health problems: <ul><li>If a student of yours is of significant concern, a request should be made to an appropriate person on the school staff who can do some further screening/ assessment. </li></ul>
  24. 27. Being Alert to Indicators of psychosocial & mental health problems: <ul><li>1. What is “problem” behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>A child’ actions are considered to be a problem when they adversely affect the child, another child, or the environment. </li></ul>
  25. 28. Being Alert to Indicators of psychosocial & mental health problems: <ul><li>Signs that indicate a referral is necessary: </li></ul><ul><li>2. Behaviors that : </li></ul><ul><li>a. Are too extreme </li></ul><ul><li>b. Happen too often </li></ul><ul><li>c. Persist too long </li></ul><ul><li>d. The number of symptoms is </li></ul><ul><li>excessive </li></ul>
  26. 29. 3 categories of childhood disorders: <ul><li>1. Internalizing Dx : depression, anxiety, eating disorders </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disruptive behavioral Dx : ADHD, oppositional Dx, conduct Dx, substance use </li></ul><ul><li>3. Developmental Dx : mental retardation, pervasive developmental Dx, learning Dx </li></ul>
  27. 30. 1. Internalizing Disorders: <ul><li>Anxiety, depression, sadness, eating Dx </li></ul>
  28. 31. Anxiety, worry and children
  29. 32. Depression, anxiety in children
  30. 33. Anger, Anxiety, & Depression
  31. 34. 2. Disruptive behavioral Disorders <ul><li>ADHD= </li></ul><ul><li>Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Inattentive, can’t concentrate </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsive </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactive, restless, on-the-go </li></ul>
  32. 35. Mental Health Assessment <ul><li>2. D isruptive behavioral Dx: oppositional- defiant, conduct Dx, substance use </li></ul>
  33. 36. Mental Health Assessment <ul><li>2. D isruptive behavioral Dx: oppositional defiant, conduct Dx, substance use </li></ul>
  34. 37. Mental Health Assessment <ul><li>2. D isruptive behavioral Dx: oppositional defiant, conduct Dx, substance use </li></ul>
  35. 38. Mental Health Assessment
  36. 39. Mental Health Assessment <ul><li>Conduct Disorder that develops in childhood can become an Antisocial disorder (psychopath) after age 18 </li></ul>
  37. 40. 3. Developmentally delayed disorders <ul><li>Autism, Asperger’s: </li></ul><ul><li>A. severe impairment in social interaction; failure to develop peer relationships at appropriate developmental level </li></ul>
  38. 41. Mental Health Assessment <ul><li>Autism, Asperger’s (cont.): </li></ul><ul><li>B. Restricted, repetitive behaviors, interests, activities </li></ul>
  39. 42. Mental Health Assessment <ul><li>C. In autism, impairment in language, verbal & nonverbal </li></ul>
  40. 43. Mental Health Assessment <ul><li>D. L earning disabilities : example, dyslexia </li></ul>
  41. 44. Mental Health Assessment <ul><li>O ther at-risk children: sexual/physical/ </li></ul><ul><li>emotional abuse, neglect, domestic violence, child custody in divorce proceedings </li></ul>
  42. 45. Examples of mental health assessments with children from my private practice
  43. 46. THE END
  44. 47. Assessment: Formal <ul><li>Testing means presenting a child with a set of questions or tasks in order to obtain a measure of performance often represented by a score. The score is intended to help answer questions and produce information about the child tested. </li></ul>
  45. 48. Assessment: Why? <ul><li>Mental retardation: Down’s syndrome in children & newborn </li></ul>
  46. 49. Performances