Woodland People<br />TYPES:<br />1.Mi’kmaq<br />2. Cree<br />3.  Ojibwa<br />
Mi’KMAQ<br />HOMES: Wigwams were usually put up by the women and could be built in a day. The basic structure of a wigwam ...
Mi’qmaq – Wigwams <br />
Mi’kmaq - Clothing<br />1.Made of skins of animals birds and fish.2.Men wore a loose robe of fur or skin worn blanket like...
Mi’qmaq- Transportation<br />1.Canoes2.Snowshoes3.Sled<br />
Mi’qmaq – tools and weapons<br />Spears   Knives    Arrow points    Scrapers<br />
Mi’qmaq Politics<br />Mi&apos;kmaq territory was divided into seven districts. The names of those districts (translations ...
Mi’qmaq Territory<br />All of the Provinces of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, the province of New Brunswick - north...
Mi’qmaq Religion<br />The Great Spirit&apos;s directives were the Mi&apos;kmaq Nation&apos;s eternal light. The People bel...
Mi’qmaq Culture<br />The lofty plateau the Mi’kmaq had reached, where all people were accepted as equals, is an ideal that...
Mi’qmaq war<br />Together with the Beothuk on Newfoundland, the Micmac were probably the first Native Americans to have re...
Cree geography<br />The major divisions of environment and dialect are the Plains Cree (Alberta and Saskatchewan), Woods C...
Cree war<br />-The wars with the BlackFoot and the Sioux were leading causes, as was small pox, to the dwindling numbers o...
Cree language<br />The Cree referred to themselves as Néhilawe. They only called themselves Cree when speaking English or ...
Cree geography<br />Cree is one of the largest groups of First Nations/ Aboriginals in North America.<br />They are locate...
Cree nation<br />
Cree food<br />Meats were boiled in bark containers with rice for corn and sweated with berries or maple sugar.<br />
cree weapons<br />Cotton traps<br />Deadfalls<br />Bows<br />Arrows<br />Spears<br />
Ojibwa greetings and other popular expressions<br />- Miigwech<br />- Aaniinezhi-ayaayan? (&quot;a neen a shay i an&quot;)...
Ojibwa family<br />An individual lived in a band and was a member of a clan. Most people from the same clan shared a commo...
ojibwa social<br />behaviour was controlled by taboos that governed actions during pregnancy, birth, illness, death, and m...
Ojibwa clothes<br />Modern costumes for dancing competitions, which still continue, have incorporated many novel elements;...
Ojibwa marriage<br />Women were allowed to marry soon after puberty, at age 14 or 15.<br />During a woman&apos;s first men...
Ojibwa childbearing <br />Parents appointed an elder to give the baby its sacred, or dream, name. <br />The parents would ...
Ojibwa culture<br />-Live in groups, known as &quot;bands&quot;.<br />-Live a sedentary lifestyle, engaging in fishing and...
Ojibwa economy <br />In the early nineteenth century, fur trading was one of the largest economic forces in the United Sta...
Ojibwa techonology<br />Before the middle of the 19th Century, Ojibwa toolswere fashion of stone and bone.<br />Bowls, spo...
Ojibwa technology<br />
Ojibwa politics<br />Economic development to reduce unemployment.<br />Defence of the wild rice industry from commercial g...
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Woodland People

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Woodland People

  1. 1. Woodland People<br />TYPES:<br />1.Mi’kmaq<br />2. Cree<br />3. Ojibwa<br />
  2. 2. Mi’KMAQ<br />HOMES: Wigwams were usually put up by the women and could be built in a day. The basic structure of a wigwam was five structure of the wigwam was five spruce poles, lashed together at the top with split spruce root and spread out at the bottom. A hoop of moosewood was ties under the poles just down from the top to brace them. Shorter poles ties to the hoop all around provided supports for the birch bark cover. Birch bark sheets were laid over the poles like shingles, starting from the bottom and overlapping as they worked up the wigwam. Extra poles laid over the outside helped hold the birch bark down. The top was left open for fireplace smoke to escape. A separate bark collar covered the top in bad weather. The floor was lined with fir twigs. Wigwams were painted with figures of animals and birds. The largest wigwams housed 12-15 people; for bigger families a longer with two fireplaces was built. <br />
  3. 3. Mi’qmaq – Wigwams <br />
  4. 4. Mi’kmaq - Clothing<br />1.Made of skins of animals birds and fish.2.Men wore a loose robe of fur or skin worn blanket like over the shoulders.3.Leggings were made of moose, caribou or seal.4.Moccasins were made of moose or seal skin.5.Some men carried tobacco pouches.6.Woman wore robes belted at the waist , worn like a towel hanging to there knees.<br />
  5. 5. Mi’qmaq- Transportation<br />1.Canoes2.Snowshoes3.Sled<br />
  6. 6. Mi’qmaq – tools and weapons<br />Spears   Knives    Arrow points    Scrapers<br />
  7. 7. Mi’qmaq Politics<br />Mi&apos;kmaq territory was divided into seven districts. The names of those districts (translations are as close as one can come to conveying their true meaning in English) and the approximate boundaries of the vast territories governed by each are shown on the accompanying map. District villages were each populated by 50 to 500 people. The number of villages and total population within each district are subject to conjecture.<br />District governments comprised a district chief and a council. Esteemed men served as chiefs, elders, village chiefs and so on. District chiefs were the men who constituted the Mi&apos;kmaq Grand Council. <br />
  8. 8. Mi’qmaq Territory<br />All of the Provinces of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, the province of New Brunswick - north of the Saint John River, most of Quebec&apos;s Gaspe Peninsula, and Northern Maine.<br />
  9. 9. Mi’qmaq Religion<br />The Great Spirit&apos;s directives were the Mi&apos;kmaq Nation&apos;s eternal light. The People believed that His dominion was all-inclusive, and that He encompassed all positive attributes-love, kindness, compassion, knowledge, wisdom etc., and that He was responsible for all existence and was personified in all things-rivers, trees, spouses, children, friends etc. No initiatives were undertaken without first requesting His guidance. His creations, &quot;Mother Earth&quot; and the Universe, were accorded the highest respect. Religion was blended into daily life-it was lived. Nature, as was the case with most American civilizations, supported Mi&apos;kmaq religious beliefs. <br />
  10. 10. Mi’qmaq Culture<br />The lofty plateau the Mi’kmaq had reached, where all people were accepted as equals, is an ideal that modern society is still working towards. In retrospect, if the Mi’kmaq and most other Native Americans had not reached this stage by 1492, European colonization could not have occurred. Instead, because of their skin colour and strange religions, Whites would have been either enslaved, repulsed, or exterminated upon arrival. <br />
  11. 11. Mi’qmaq war<br />Together with the Beothuk on Newfoundland, the Micmac were probably the first Native Americans to have regular contact with Europeans. This may have occurred as early as the 11th century with the early Viking settlements on the coast of North America, or perhaps with Basque fishermen who visited the Grand Banks before Columbus&apos; voyage in 1492 but kept quiet about where they were catching all their fish. <br />
  12. 12. Cree geography<br />The major divisions of environment and dialect are the Plains Cree (Alberta and Saskatchewan), Woods Cree (Saskatchewan and Manitoba) and Swampy Cree (Manitoba, Ontario and Québec). Subarctic hunting cultures were thinly spread over the land and periodic hardships kept their population low over the centuries.<br />
  13. 13. Cree war<br />-The wars with the BlackFoot and the Sioux were leading causes, as was small pox, to the dwindling numbers of the Cree population. The Woodland Cree stayed in the forest. <br />-There were two groups of Cree, Woodlands, and Plains. Both groups were made up of bands of related families. -There were twelve different bands but there was only one military society.<br />
  14. 14. Cree language<br />The Cree referred to themselves as Néhilawe. They only called themselves Cree when speaking English or French.<br />The Cree language is the name for a group of closely related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada.<br />It is the most widely spoken Aboriginal language.<br />Despite its numerous speakers in this area, the only province that has the Cree language as an official language is the North-West Territories, along with eight other Aboriginal languages.<br />
  15. 15. Cree geography<br />Cree is one of the largest groups of First Nations/ Aboriginals in North America.<br />They are located mostly across Canada.<br />The Cree Nation is divided into eight groups: <br />1.    Naskapi (Innu)<br />2.      Montagnais (Innu)<br />3.      Atikamekw (Nitaskinan=“Our Land”)<br />4.      James-Bay Cree (Grand Council of the Crees)<br />5.      Moose Cree<br />6.      Swampy Cree<br />7.      Woods Cree<br />8.      Plains Cree<br />
  16. 16. Cree nation<br />
  17. 17. Cree food<br />Meats were boiled in bark containers with rice for corn and sweated with berries or maple sugar.<br />
  18. 18. cree weapons<br />Cotton traps<br />Deadfalls<br />Bows<br />Arrows<br />Spears<br />
  19. 19. Ojibwa greetings and other popular expressions<br />- Miigwech<br />- Aaniinezhi-ayaayan? (&quot;a neen a shay i an&quot;)—How are you?<br />- Nimino-ayaa<br />- Mino-ayaag ! (&quot;minnow a yog&quot;)—All of you be well!<br />
  20. 20. Ojibwa family<br />An individual lived in a band and was a member of a clan. Most people from the same clan shared a common ancestor on their father&apos;s side of the family. Some clans were matrilineal, and children were affiliated with their mother&apos;s clan.<br />People of the same clan claim a common totem ( dodem, do daim, or do dam ), the symbol of a living creature.<br />seven original clans were the bear, bird, catfish, crane, deer, loon, and marten.<br />-Bands consisted of groups of five to 50 families, up to 400 people, and lived within the same village.<br />
  21. 21. ojibwa social<br />behaviour was controlled by taboos that governed actions during pregnancy, birth, illness, death, and mourning. example, bereaved relatives were not allowed to participate in food gathering until someone fed them the first wild rice or maple sugar of the season.<br />
  22. 22. Ojibwa clothes<br />Modern costumes for dancing competitions, which still continue, have incorporated many novel elements; for example, jingle dancers may sew hundreds of snuff can covers onto dresses in place of traditional seashells or bones.<br />
  23. 23. Ojibwa marriage<br />Women were allowed to marry soon after puberty, at age 14 or 15.<br />During a woman&apos;s first menstrual period she fasted in a small wigwam from five to ten days. During this time the manitou or spirits were considered a strong spiritual presence in her life.<br />Boys were allowed to marry as soon as they could demonstrate that they could support a family through hunting.<br />During courtship the couple&apos;s contact was supervised. If both young people were found acceptable to each other and to their families, the man moved in with the wife&apos;s family for a year.<br />There was no formal wedding ceremony.<br />If the marriage proved to be disharmonious or if the wife failed to conceive, then the man returned to his parents.<br />A couple that wished to continue living together after the year would build their own separate dwelling.<br />
  24. 24. Ojibwa childbearing <br />Parents appointed an elder to give the baby its sacred, or dream, name. <br />The parents would also give the child one or more nicknames.<br />Ojibwa babies were kept in cradle boards—rectangular wooden frames with a backrest or curved headboard to protect the baby&apos;s head, and a footrest. Dream catchers—willow hoops encircling woven animal-sinew designs that resembled spider webs—and toys of bone, birch bark, shells, or feathers hung from the headboard. Dried moss, cattail down, and rabbit skins served as diapers.<br />Grandparents typically had living with them at least one grandchild, including at least one granddaughter.<br />Childhood was divided into two periods: the time before the child walked, and the time from walking to puberty.<br />Until girls and boys were around seven years of age, they were tended to and taught by their mothers, aunts, and elders. After that age, boys were taught hunting and fishing skills by the men, while girls continued to learn domestic skills from the women and elders. Moral values were taught by example and through storytelling.<br />
  25. 25. Ojibwa culture<br />-Live in groups, known as &quot;bands&quot;.<br />-Live a sedentary lifestyle, engaging in fishing and hunting to supplement the women&apos;s cultivation of numerous varieties of maize and squash, and the harvesting of manoomin (wild rice). <br />
  26. 26. Ojibwa economy <br />In the early nineteenth century, fur trading was one of the largest economic forces in the United States. John Jacob Astor, once considered the richest man in America, first amassed his fortune by trading goods for furs trapped by Ojibwa and other north-eastern Indians<br />
  27. 27. Ojibwa techonology<br />Before the middle of the 19th Century, Ojibwa toolswere fashion of stone and bone.<br />Bowls, spoons, canoe paddles, sleds, drums, and snowshoes were all made of wood.<br />Birch Bark provided material for canoes.<br />Spears and bows used for hunting.<br />Animal skins used for clothing, blankets, tailoring.<br />Iron tools like scissors, needles, axes, knives, cooking utensils, kettles, pots, etc. as well as guns and alcohol were introduced.     <br />The iron tools transformed the way of hunting for the Ojibwa people.<br />
  28. 28. Ojibwa technology<br />
  29. 29. Ojibwa politics<br />Economic development to reduce unemployment.<br />Defence of the wild rice industry from commercial growers.<br />Improved medical treatment to combat illnesses such as diabetes and alcoholism. <br />Better management of natural resources.<br />Protection of treaty rights and attainment of sovereignty.<br />Increased emphasis on higher education to train specialists and renew cultural ties.<br />
  30. 30. THANK YOU!<br />
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