Ethical Decision Making: Technology and Privacy in the Workplace<br />Prepared by:<br />ANNALYN G. PEÑA<br />
Psychological testing at Dayton Hudson<br />Answer each of the following questions True or False:<br />I feel sure there i...
Definitions of Privacy<br />Right to be “let alone”-the right to make decisions for oneself<br />Much too broad to be reco...
Importance of Privacy<br />Privacy establishes the boundary between individuals and thereby defines one’s individuality<br...
Ethical sources of Privacy<br />Universal right to Autonomy-everyindividual has a right to make decisions about  his/her p...
Ethical sources of Privacy (Con’t)<br />Hypernorms and moral free space (Donaldson & Dunfee)<br />Examples of hypernorms-f...
Linking Privacy to Ethical Implications of Technology<br />Technological challenge to privacy:<br />Technology makes our j...
Linking Privacy to Ethical Implications of Technology (Con’t)<br />INFORMATION AND PRIVACY<br />Consumer Privacy- focused ...
EMPLOYEE PRIVACY AND MONITORING<br />Employee Privacy<br />Psychological testing-not 100% accurate<br />Employee Privacy i...
EMPLOYEE PRIVACY AND MONITORING (Con’t)<br />Workplace Monitoring-new technologies enable employers to watch more closely ...
EMPLOYEE PRIVACY AND MONITORING (Con’t)<br />Employee Monitoring through drug testing<br />Wellness programs and medical b...
Risks involved in a failure to understand the implication of technology and its use<br />When we don’t completely understa...
Additional Ethical Challenges<br />Information is now freely available from a variety of sources<br />Continuous accessibi...
REASONS WHY EMPLOYERS MONITOR EMPLOYEES’ WORK<br />Employers need to manage their workplace<br />Monitoring allows the man...
BUSINESS REASONS TO LIMIT MONITORING<br />Monitoring may create a suspicious and hostile workplace.<br />Monitoring may co...
Balancing Interests<br />Consider whether monitoring could be made ethical or humane<br />Hawthorne Effect<br />Strive tow...
Elements of a Monitoring Program<br />No monitoring in public areas (e.g. restrooms)<br />Monitoring limited to within the...
Elements of a Monitoring Program (Con’t)<br />Monitoring should only result in attaining some business interest<br />Emplo...
OTHER FORMS OF MONITORING<br />Polygraph testing (lie-detector), physical and electronic surveillance, third party backgro...
Conclusion:<br />Without question, the technologies that threaten privacy have brought us many benefits. Finding the right...
Computer Privacy<br />
The End!<br />
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Ethical decision making-technology and privacy in the workplace

  1. 1. Ethical Decision Making: Technology and Privacy in the Workplace<br />Prepared by:<br />ANNALYN G. PEÑA<br />
  2. 2. Psychological testing at Dayton Hudson<br />Answer each of the following questions True or False:<br />I feel sure there is only one true religion.<br />My soul sometimes leaves my body.<br />I believe in the second coming of Christ.<br />I wish I were not bothered by thoughts about sex.<br />I am very strongly attracted by members of my own sex.<br />I have never indulged in any unusual sex practices<br />
  3. 3. Definitions of Privacy<br />Right to be “let alone”-the right to make decisions for oneself<br />Much too broad to be recognized as a moral right<br />Right to control information about oneself<br />Clearest case of an invasion of privacy occurs when others come to know personal information about us<br />Informational sense of privacy involves relationship between two parties<br />
  4. 4. Importance of Privacy<br />Privacy establishes the boundary between individuals and thereby defines one’s individuality<br />The right to control certain extremely personal decisions and information helps determine the kind of person we are and the person we become <br />
  5. 5. Ethical sources of Privacy<br />Universal right to Autonomy-everyindividual has a right to make decisions about his/her personal existence without restriction<br />Reciprocal obligation–for an individual to expect respect for his/her autonomy, that individual has a reciprocal obligation to respect the autonomy of others<br />
  6. 6. Ethical sources of Privacy (Con’t)<br />Hypernorms and moral free space (Donaldson & Dunfee)<br />Examples of hypernorms-freedom of speech, right to personal freedom, right to physical movement and informed consent<br />Property Rights- Involves determination of who controls the tangibles and intangibles<br />Property-is an individual’s life and all nonprocreative derivatives of her/his life<br />Derivatives-includes thoughts and ideas, and personal info (intangibles)<br />
  7. 7. Linking Privacy to Ethical Implications of Technology<br />Technological challenge to privacy:<br />Technology makes our jobs easier but allows employers to ask more of each employee<br />New technology provides new ways to gather information on which to base our value judgment<br />Firms often experience unanticipated challenges stemming from new technology<br />
  8. 8. Linking Privacy to Ethical Implications of Technology (Con’t)<br />INFORMATION AND PRIVACY<br />Consumer Privacy- focused on gathering and use of information in database marketing<br />Facilitated by computer technology<br />Issues on consumer privacy- access to information and potential misuse<br />Benefits outweigh the challenges<br />
  9. 9. EMPLOYEE PRIVACY AND MONITORING<br />Employee Privacy<br />Psychological testing-not 100% accurate<br />Employee Privacy is violated whenever:<br />Employers infringe upon personal decisions that are irrelevant to the employment contract<br />Whenever personal information that is irrelevant to that contract is collected, stored, or used without the informed consent of the employee<br />
  10. 10. EMPLOYEE PRIVACY AND MONITORING (Con’t)<br />Workplace Monitoring-new technologies enable employers to watch more closely than ever before.<br />Subjects for monitoring: Internet monitoring, e-mail monitoring and videotaping<br />Companies are forced to increase monitoring of employees (for more complex and dangerous manufacturing process)<br />
  11. 11. EMPLOYEE PRIVACY AND MONITORING (Con’t)<br />Employee Monitoring through drug testing<br />Wellness programs and medical benefits-results in the collection of medical data<br />The issue: Employers “threaten” employees to dissuade them from pressing a suit<br />
  12. 12. Risks involved in a failure to understand the implication of technology and its use<br />When we don’t completely understand the technology, we are not able to effectively protect our own information<br />Knowledge gap exists between people whodo understand and others who do not understand<br />
  13. 13. Additional Ethical Challenges<br />Information is now freely available from a variety of sources<br />Continuous accessibility blurs the lines between our personal and professional lives<br />“Facelessness results from the use of the new technology accessible in the workplace<br />We become more careless with our communications<br />
  14. 14. REASONS WHY EMPLOYERS MONITOR EMPLOYEES’ WORK<br />Employers need to manage their workplace<br />Monitoring allows the manager to ensure effective, productive performance<br />Monitoring helps protect employer’s other resources<br />
  15. 15. BUSINESS REASONS TO LIMIT MONITORING<br />Monitoring may create a suspicious and hostile workplace.<br />Monitoring may constrain effective performance <br />Employees claim that monitoring is an inherent invasion of privacy<br />
  16. 16. Balancing Interests<br />Consider whether monitoring could be made ethical or humane<br />Hawthorne Effect<br />Strive towards a balance that respects individual dignity while also holding individuals accountable for their particular roles in the organization<br />
  17. 17. Elements of a Monitoring Program<br />No monitoring in public areas (e.g. restrooms)<br />Monitoring limited to within the workplace<br />Employees should have access to information gathered through monitoring<br />No secret monitoring – advance notice required<br />
  18. 18. Elements of a Monitoring Program (Con’t)<br />Monitoring should only result in attaining some business interest<br />Employer may only collect job-related information<br />Agreement regarding disclosure of information gained through monitoring<br />Prohibition of discrimination by employers based on off-work activities<br />
  19. 19. OTHER FORMS OF MONITORING<br />Polygraph testing (lie-detector), physical and electronic surveillance, third party background checks, and psychological testing<br />Electronic monitoring and surveillance—more recent<br />Genetic testing and screening—provide new questions about privacy—another technology that will offer businesses a wealth of information about potential employee and customers<br />
  20. 20. Conclusion:<br />Without question, the technologies that threaten privacy have brought us many benefits. Finding the right means is a great challenge to business firms which must meet many business ethics problems, protecting privacy requires a coordinated solution involving many parties. Until a solution is found, though, the focus of businesses will remain on developing and implementing privacy policies.<br />
  21. 21. Computer Privacy<br />
  22. 22. The End!<br />
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