1. Detailed Lesson Plan for Demonstration Teaching(Inductive Approach)Annalou L. MercadoBSEd – Biological ScienceLaguna State Polytechnic University LSPU-LHS Los Baños, Laguna2/24/2010 EXCRETION Excretion by Urinary System <br />OBJECTIVES: At the end of the 1 hour class period, the students should be able to:<br /><ul><li>Identify the major structures of the urinary system and its functions.
2. Trace the process through which urine is produced.
3. Describe the major disorders of the urinary system and treatments.</li></ul>SUBJECT MATTER: Respiration and Excretion<br /> Topic: EXCRETION <br /> Subtopic: Urinary System<br />MATERIALS:<br /><ul><li>Visuals Aids
4. Powerpoint presentation
5. LCD and personal computer
6. Chalk and Chalkboard
7. Handouts for students</li></ul> References: <br /><ul><li>Biology Science Impact by Pacifico C. Paywal and et. al., Academe Publishing House Inc 2006,
17. Review</li></ul>Teacher’s ActivityStudent’s ActivityIn our previous lessons, we have discussed the different body systems involved in excretion.What is excretion again? Yes, Jonimar.Very Good! There are three body systems involved in excretion. Let’s start with the Digestive System. What happens to the undigested foods?Yes, Alyssa.Review (continuation)Teacher’s ActivityExcretion is the process of removing metabolic wastes.The undigested food is passed into the large intestine for temporary storage. Student’s ActivityGood answer! And what contains the undigested foods? Yes, Rainiel.Very well said! What do we call to the remaining solid wastes after absorption? And what does it contains? Yes, Jennelyn?And how feces discharged? Franz.The undigested food contains a large amount of water and dissolved minerals like iron, calcium, and magnesium. Some of the water and the dissolved minerals are absorbed by the walls of the large intestine and returned to our body through blood circulation. The remaining solid waste after absorption is called feces. Feces contains bacteria, undigested food, bile, and the remaining water and minerals. It is discharged by the large intestine through the rectum. It then leaves our body through the anus.Very Good! Other body system involved in excretion is our Respiratory System which excretes a gaseous waste. Can you tell me how our respiratory system can be said as NOT only organs of respiration but also organs of excretion? Yes, Matthew.Our lungs give off carbon dioxide and water vapor as waste products. These are picked up by the blood from the cells and brought to the lungs. Then, the lungs give them off as we exhale or breathe out.That’s right! And we also excrete liquid wastes. One body system perform this excretion of liquid wastes like water, urea and salt is our Integumentary System . What do we call this liquid waste produced by our Integumentary System? Yes, Cyril.Yes. And how it is taken out from our body? Yes, Ramil.We call these wastes as sweat or perspiration.These metabolic wastes move out of the blood vessels through the capillaries into the sweat glands. Each sweat gland has a sweat tube that leads to a small opening in the skin’s surface called pore. This is where water and salt pass out of the skin. <br />3. Presentation / Motivation<br />Teacher’s ActivityStudent’s Activity(Three Students who first raise the hands will be rewarded.)I have here nilagang saging and Nova.Who wants Nova crackers? Who wants the nilagang saging? I have here a bottle of Coke and 3 bottles of mineral water. Who wants the Coke? Who wants mineral water? If I would ask you to choose which food do you like to eat after our class this morning, can you give me examples of junks foods you usually buy during your snack time?I gave the three pieces of nilagang saging to your classmates. Why do you think I did NOT gave to you the Nova?What drinks do you preferred? Softdrinks, canned juice, Zest O and other beverages or water?I gave the three bottles of mineral water to your classmates. Why do you think I did NOT gave to you the Coke? Yes, Foilan.What is the importance of water intake?Yes, Clint.(This will not be given to student who raise the hands)(Those students who likes nilagang saging will receive nilagang saging while those who likes junk foods will not receive).(This will not be given to student who raise the hands)(Those students who likes mineral water will receive mineral water while student who likes Coke will not be given).(Student’s answers may vary depending on their preferred food tastes.) Examples are Chippy, Nova, V Cut, Cheese curls and etc.,Because nilagang saging is an example of fruit that is rich in vitamins and minerals and is very good to our health while these junk food Nova is too salty and therefore is not good in our health.(Student’s answers may vary depending on their preferred drinks.) Examples are soft drinks like Coke, RC, C2 and etc.,Because soft drinks are too acidic and therefore are not good in our health while water intake is very good to our health.Water is very important to take compared to other beverages because it plays a very important function in controlling body temperature, carrying nutrients and helps excretion of wastes.<br />4. Lesson Proper<br /><ul><li>Teacher’s ActivityStudent’s ActivityVery Good! Our body has integrative body systems. When we say “integrative”, this means that our body systems are interconnected to each other to maintain homeostasis. What is human homeostasis? Yes, Kristine?What will happen if you do not have the ability to maintain homeostasis in our body? Yes, Daniel?Yes. Our body is so sensitive to everything we take in our body and to environment outside where we live in. And because of its sensitivity, we need other body system to perform other major liquid excretion aside from excretion by our skin. What do you think is the other liquid waste we excreted in our body? Yes, Crisdel?I have here a diagram of our Urinary System. What are the major structures of urinary system?Yes, John Mark. Instruction: As your activity today, I want you to group into two groups. Please count 1 and 2. Now all 1’s please stand up and go tothis side. All 2’s please stand up and go to this side.Select a leader and secretary in your group. The secretary will list the names of each group.In each group is a diagram of urinary system and its parts. I want you to label the parts and put its functions beside the parts. When you are done put the diagram on the board. Group with the highest number of correct answers will receive plus two in class participation while the other group will receive only plus one in today’s class participation.(Group performance will be checked during discussion)Lesson Proper (continuation)Teacher’s ActivityHuman homeostasis refers to the body's ability to physiologically regulate its inner environment to ensure its stability in response to fluctuations in the outside environment and the weather. In other words, it is the state of balance in our body.Homeostatic imbalance will lead to diseases or even death.Our body also excretes liquid waste in the form of urine.The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.(1,2, 1, 2… up to the last student)(The students then will label the parts of the urinary system and its functions for 5-7 minutes.)Student’s ActivityVery Good! Thank You. Please go back to your sits. Let us see if your work is correct. Now can you describe the kidneys? Yes, Kristine.And what is its function? Yes, Matthew.Where this blood for filtration enters? Rainiel.Rainiel said that blood for filtration enters the renal artery, what will happen next? Yes, Ramil.Nice answer! This is the structure of nephron that filters the blood inside the kidneys. What will happen to the filtered blood? Yes, Crisdel.Yes, very good! What will happen to the excess salts, water, and other wastes? Yes, Jennelyn.How many times the blood passes through the kidneys? Kristine.What will happen to the waste materials? Jennelyn.That’s right. Jennylyn says that urea is nitrogenous compounds included in urine. What about the uric acid? What foods contain purines?Lesson Proper (continuation)Teacher’s ActivityThe kidneys are the major organs of the urinary system. These are two bean-shaped kidneys found on each side of the spinal column in line with our elbows. The main function of the kidney is to filter impurities from the blood and regulate the water level and chemicals in the body. The blood, which carries waste materials and other substances, enters the kidneys through the renal artery. Each kidney is composed of about a million nephrons. A nephron is the filtering unit of the kidney. At the end, most of the water, sugar, vitamins and salts have been reabsorbed The substances that are useful to the body are brought back into circulation. Together with the clean blood, they leave the kidneys through the renal veins.Excess salts, water, and wastes remains in the tubule and become urine.Urine enters collecting ducts (tubes) in the medullaAll the blood in the body passes through the kidneys about 20 times every hour. The waste material left in the kidneys after filtration is in the urine. It is made up of metabolic wastes such as excess water, excess salts, and the nitrogenous compounds urea and uric acid. The urine leaves the kidneys through the ureters.Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines.Purines are found in some foods and drinks, such as liver, anchovies, mackerel, dried beans and peas, beer, and wine.Student’s ActivityCan you describe the ureters and tells us what is its function? Yes, Ruchelle.Good. Can you please describe the urinary bladder? Yes, Daniel.What is the function of the urinary bladder?Sarah.What will happen then when the urinary bladder is full? Yes, Jonimar.Yes. And what is the function of urethra? Clint.The ureters are muscular tubes 10-12 inches long that moves urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.It is a hollow muscular sac organ connected from the ureters.Urinary bladder temporarily store the urine that pass from the two ureters.When the urinary bladder is full, it contracts and urine moves from the bladder through the urethra. Urethra is a tube that carries urine from bladder to outside of the body.</li></ul>GENERALIZATION:<br />Teacher’s ActivityStudent’s ActivityWhat do you call to the state of balance in our body? Yes, Rainiel.What are major structures of the urinary system?Yes, Jennelyn.Let’s trace back the process how urine is produced by our urinary system.Let’s start with kidneys. When the blood enters our kidney through the renal arteries, what is the main function of kidneys? Yes, Crisdel. How about the ureters?Yes, Leslee Ann.Very Good! What is the function of the urinary bladder? Yes, Franz.And lastly? Yes, Daniel.The state of balance in our body is called Human homeostasis.The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.Kidneys are bean-shaped organ that contains filtering units called nephrons. The ureters are muscular tubes 10-12 inches long that moves urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.Urinary bladder temporarily store the urine that pass from the two ureters.Urethra is a tube that carries urine from bladder to outside of the body.<br />APPLICATION:<br />Teacher’s ActivityStudent’s ActivityHow many times do you urinate in one day?If I would I ask you to approximately measure your urine you excreted in one day, how many liters do you think is it?What do you think is the normal average amount of urine you should excrete in a day? Yes, Sarah?Are you at the average amount of urine you should excrete in 24 hours?If you are NOT, what do you think do you have?Yes, John MarkWhat do you usually feel?Had you consulted your doctor already?What was the doctor advised to you?Yes. And that is the reason why I did not gave you the Nova and the Coke. We hope for your recovery. Class, have you heard of the word “dialysis”? Any idea what is dialysis? Yes, FroilanDo you have a sister, brother, cousin, or other relative or friends who have undergone dialysis?I have here a picture of patient who undergone dialysis to filter his blood.(Students answers may vary depending on their experience.)(Students answers may vary depending on their experience.)Humans produce about 2.9 liters of urine over 24 hours.(Students answers may vary depending on their experience.)I think I have a problem or disease. (Student should allow to share experience)I have a difficulty in urination.Yes mam. And the doctor said I have a urinary tract infection or UTI.The doctor prescribed me to take antibiotics. He also told me to avoid salty foods especially the junk foods and drink 8 glasses of water every day.Dialysis, a treatment where a machine does the job of the kidneys to filter the blood.(Students answers may vary depending on their experience.)<br />APPLICATION (continuation):<br /><ul><li>Teacher’s ActivityStudent’s ActivityWhat will happen if both of your kidneys failed to function? What will happen to you?Yes, Matthew.Is it possible for a person to live with one kidney?Do you have relatives who had undergone kidney transplant?What is kidney transplantation?Yes. Sarah.Very good! I will show you a picture of patient who had undergone a kidney transplant and also a picture of a kidney donor.What do you call to a physician who specialize in kidney diseases?Yes, Pauline.Would you like to experience the same as the patient had?If NO. What you should do to take care of your urinary system? Yes, John Mark. Can you give us one prevention of kidney disorder?Yes. That’s right! What else? Yes, Clint.What else? Yes, Ruchelle.Very Good! Any more prevention do you know?Yes, Cyril.Yes. Do you have questions about our urinary system? If none, it is very important to remember that Urinary system is a major organ of excretion that removes liquid waste in the form of urine from our body. To prevent renal diseases, and renal failures you should take care of it by eating a healthy diet, increase water intake from 6-8 glasses in a day and urinate when necessary.(Students answers may vary depending on their experience.)Yes, mam.(Students will share their relative’s experience)Kidney transplantation means replacement of the failed kidneys with a working kidney from another person, called a donor. Kidney transplantation is not a complete cure, although many people who receive a kidney transplant are able to live much as they did before their kidneys failed.People who receive a transplant must take medication and be monitored by a physician who specializes in kidney disease nephrologist for the rest of their lives.No mam.Do not delay urination when it is necessary.Drink 6-8 glasses of water every day.Eat a healthy diet. Avoid eating salty foods.Avoid drinking soft drinks and alcoholic drinks like beer and wine.</li></ul>EVALUATION <br /> A. Matching Type. Match Column A to Column B. Letters only.<br /> Column A Column B<br />___1. the major system excretion that removes liquid wastes. A. Dialysis<br /> This excretory system consists of the kidneys, ureters, <br /> urinary bladder and urethra. B. Human homeostasis<br />___2. used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney<br /> function (renal replacement therapy) due to renal failure. C. Kidney transplantation<br />___3. replacement of the failed kidneys with a working kidney <br /> from another person, called a donor. D. Nephrologist<br />___4. A physician who specializes in kidney disease.<br />___5. the state of balance in our body. E. Urinary System<br />B. Trace the process through which urine is produced. Write 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 on the blank according <br /> to order of urine production.<br />___6. The Urinary bladder (a hollow sac organ) then temporarily stores the urine that passes from the <br /> two ureters. The urethra finally carries urine from bladder to outside of the body.<br />___ 7. The substances that are useful to the body are brought back into circulation. Together with the <br /> clean blood, they leave the kidneys through the renal veins.<br />___8. as blood surges through the kidneys, a filtering unit called nephrons filters the blood with nitrogenous waste urea, uric acid, salts and other metabolic wastes. Excess salts, water, and wastes remains in the tubule and become urine after filtration.<br />____9. Blood enters each of the kidneys through a large artery that branches off from the aorta through the renal arteries.<br />___ 10. the urine leaves the kidneys through the ureters, a muscular tubes 10-12 inches long that moves urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.<br />ASSIGNMENT. <br />Please do a research on the following urinary disorders. Look for the Symptoms and Treatments or Preventions of each disease. One urinary disease in each group.<br />Cystitis - Group 1 <br />Urethritis - Group 2<br />Renal Failure – Group 3<br />References: <br />http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urination_disorder <br /> Biology Science Impact by Pacifico C. Paywal and et. al., Academe Publishing <br /> House Inc 2006, pages 502 – 503 and pages 580 – 581.<br />Criteria in judging class presentations of research.<br />Visual Aids 25 pointsVoice Quality (Loudness and Clarity) 25 pointsContent 50 points<br />