Holmes online groups

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This is Brian Holmes presentation from the workshop entitled eTwinning Groups: share, connect, develop

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Holmes online groups

  1. 1. Online Groups Experience from an eTwinning Learning Event March 2013 eTwinning conference, Lisbon Brian Holmes, Lancaster University &The Executive Agency for Education, Audiovisual and Culture with the support of Tiina Sarisalmi, Municipality of Orivesi, Finland & European Schoolnet, Belgium
  2. 2. How active were the participants? Plot showing participant messages over timeFrequency ofmessagesrelated closelyto activitiesand to themessagesfrom themoderatorParticipantslessdependent onmoderatortowards theend 2 http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn
  3. 3. How active were the participants? What the results suggest•  Participants were very much focused on the activities: –  They posted messages when needed to achieve the goal of a shared activity –  Little interaction when the online activity was finished or when they were busy with activities in their own teaching practice•  Participants’ initial interaction followed closely that of the moderator –  They responded to prompts from the moderator –  They responded to feedback•  Participants became more autonomous over time –  Less influenced by messages from the moderator towards the end –  They seemed to be more proactive, supporting one another towards the end 3
  4. 4. Leading to autonomy What about ‘lurkers’?A ‘lurker’ is someone who passively participates in the onlinediscussion forums, perhaps reading the messages of others, but notactively contributing themselves.Is lurking necessarily a bad thing?Let’s look at the example of Lantha ... 4
  5. 5. Leading to autonomy The example of Lantha•  Lantha is a teacher from Greece•  In the Learning Event, she posted very few messages•  When interviewed about her experience she said: ‘I made a seminar with my partners here in Greece and I transferred these tools to them, the main idea about them. It was very useful, I said that everyday that I am really grateful that I learned so much things.’•  This suggests that Lantha may have been a lurker, however she was far from passive•  She was using what she was learning from the online discussions to apply this with her colleagues in her school 5
  6. 6. Leading to autonomy Legitimate Peripheral ParticipationLurking in an online group may be a good thing.Lave and Wenger (1991) call this ‘legitimate peripheral participation’.They argue that participants often start at the edge of a community andgradual move to the centre as they become more confident andexperienced.This may be the case for Lantha: in future Learning Events, she may bemore active in her participation.The lurkers of today are the active participants of the future! 6
  7. 7. Leading to autonomyCritical thinking and competence developmentCritical thinking is about ‘reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do’ (Ennis, 2002) ‘purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation … as well as explanation of the … considerations upon which that judgment is based’ (Facione, 2013)Critical thinking is important for competence development;it and helps teachers to prepare for the ill-defined problems of the future. 7
  8. 8. Leading to autonomy Critical thinking: a theoretical modelLinking private thoughts Constructing meaning,to real world, as ideas moving between reflectionare explored: adding to and discourse: integratingwhat has been said ideas from different sourcesCognition Critical thinking Direct or vicarious action asInitial phase, issues and solutions are implemented andproblems emerge: assessed: evaluating results,asking questions linking to wider context (Garrison et al., 2001, p.99) 8
  9. 9. Leading to autonomy Critical thinking: a theoretical model Critical thinking Analysis suggests critical thinking reached in later stages of the Learning Event Resolution IntegrationCognitive  presence Exploration Cognition Triggering event Other 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Messages  in  order  of  time  (first  to  last) Example of Edita: illustrates the progression in cognition for a typical participant 9
  10. 10. Leading to autonomy Reflective practitionersAs a participant …ü  Give examples of what happened to you in practice, why you think it happened and what you would recommend to others.ü  Encourage your colleagues to go into more detail, to explain their reasoning.ü  Make suggestions to help colleagues express themselves.ü  Be critical but supportive of others.ü  Be sociable and share your feelings.ü  Be creative; sharing is fun J. 10
  11. 11. Leading to autonomy Encouraging critical thinkingAs a moderator …ü  Ask participants to try things out in their teaching practiceü  Allow time for reflection and get them to share their experience with others in the forumsü  Encourage expressions of feeling: joy, pride, fear, confidence, etcü  Prompt others to build upon this experience with other examplesü  Get them to suggest alternatives and talk about what might happen in different contextsü  Encourage participants to draw conclusionsü  Use creative forms of expression such as images 11
  12. 12. Thank you Brian.Holmes@skynet.be http://holmesbrian.blogspot.com/ReferencesENNIS, R. (2002). A Super-Streamlined Conception of Critical Thinking.http://faculty.education.illinois.edu/rhennis/index.htmlGARRISON, D. R., ANDERSON, T. & ARCHER, W. (2001) ‘Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computerconferencing in distance education’, American Journal of Distance Education, 15 (1), pp.7-23.FACIONE, P.A. (2013) Critical Thinking: What It is and Why It Counts, p. 26,http://www.insightassessment.com/content/download/1176/7580/file/What%26why2013.pdfLAVE, J. & WENGER, E. (1991) Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge, CambridgeUniversity Press. 12

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