Openness as an Asset. A Classification System for Online Communities Based on Actor-Network Theory Open Collaboration Trac...
Reasons and Aims of the Research
Early taxonomies <ul><li>Online communities classified according to: </li></ul>Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the ...
Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>Limits of early taxonomies </li></ul></...
Need to develop a new taxonomy <ul><li>It should: </li></ul>Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Di...
Two  Principia Divisions
STS and ANT <ul><li>Epistemological tools by STS and ANT useful to address the 5 requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No sp...
LCA variable Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>Mediation </li></ul></ul><...
LCA variable Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>Short chain </li></ul></ul...
DVO variable Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><li>It measures the degree of open...
Method
Sample selection Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul></u...
Techniques of data collection and analysis Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul>...
Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>Degrees of visibility of guests’ conten...
Results
LCA variable Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>“ Long chain” value </li><...
DVO variable Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>“ Invisible” or “very low”...
Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion
Discussion
Only two variables <ul><li>“ Openness” = porosity of boundaries </li></ul>Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Resea...
Paul Ricœur’s distinction Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>Ideology </li...
Applicability to Wiki Communities?! Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>Wik...
Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion
Correlation coefficient between LCA and DVO variables (Kendall's tau-c method) Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the ...
Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion
Possible explanations Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><li>It could reflect effe...
<ul><ul><li>Thanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tracing back Communities” research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By Annalisa ...
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Wikisym 2010 Pelizza

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Article presented by Annalisa Pelizza at Wikisym 2010 in Gdansk. It sums up the results of the "Tracing back Communities" Ph.D. research (http://www.peacelink.it/mediawatch/a/29995.html)

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Wikisym 2010 Pelizza

  1. 1. Openness as an Asset. A Classification System for Online Communities Based on Actor-Network Theory Open Collaboration Track Annalisa Pelizza, Ph.D. July 9 th 2010
  2. 2. Reasons and Aims of the Research
  3. 3. Early taxonomies <ul><li>Online communities classified according to: </li></ul>Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>Attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship to physical community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of “boundedness” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared interest, social conventions, size, emotional ties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IRC, BB, newsgroups, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on / related to/ no links with PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how many social relationships remain within the defined population </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>Limits of early taxonomies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discipline-related variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categorical variables cannot cluster OC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SNS and the obsolescence of many categories… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsolescence due to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ever-widening meaning of “community” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No single interest focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New ways to articulate traditional dichotomies (i.e. individual Vs. collective, physical Vs. virtual) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Need to develop a new taxonomy <ul><li>It should: </li></ul>Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>avoid outdated or anecdotal variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be applicable to a wide range of cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be enough abstract to do not stick to a specific discipline’s interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help researchers to reduce heterogeneity by identifying few types of OC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide a framework for researchers to identify techno-social aggregates that produce innovation </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Two Principia Divisions
  7. 7. STS and ANT <ul><li>Epistemological tools by STS and ANT useful to address the 5 requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No specific social groups set a-priori </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actor-network as an open network: openness as abstract principle underpinning the classification system proposed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable variables: “Length of the chain of action” (LCA) and “Degree of visibility of the Outside” (DVO) </li></ul></ul>Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion
  8. 8. LCA variable Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>Mediation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs exceed inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be reduced to cause-effect relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object exert agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long concatenation of actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. “Access to ICT empowers communities” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs enough to define outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause-effect relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools transport agency p2p without interfering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short concatenation of actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. “PDA has proved to be helpful” </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. LCA variable Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>Short chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts number more intermediaries than mediators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few “passages” between cause and effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICT depicted as intermediaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship between ICT and society as simple causation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community as a stabilized entity whose boundaries are taken for granted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts number more mediators than intermediaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many concatenations: each mediator activates other mediators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICT depicted as mediators: each mediator makes a difference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community as unstable entity whose boundaries are porous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Good” accounts </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. DVO variable Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><li>It measures the degree of openness allowed by groupware architectures </li></ul><ul><li>It replaces focus on type of technology with focus on how code contributes to keep up group boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Groupware architecture embodies regimes of access and visibility in the form of access policies </li></ul><ul><li>Open groupware architectures = those that establish the potential for non-members to access the assemblage as viewers AND to leave a publicly visible trace of the interaction </li></ul>
  11. 11. Method
  12. 12. Sample selection Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ars Electronica’s Digital Communities Prize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition as arena where meaning emerges from comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurring elements like spokespersons, anti-groups and boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition as place where online networks hit representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 submissions awarded from 2004 to 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data from textual accounts and websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situations where the social is made “visible” (meetings, science labs, distance in time/space, breakdowns, archives and museum collections, fiction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies are made visible into accounts </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Techniques of data collection and analysis Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>LCA variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textual analysis techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical partition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text classification procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis sheet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>Degrees of visibility of guests’ contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Invisible” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Very low” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rather low” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rather high” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Very high” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVO variable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List of all functionalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort out interactive functionalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sort out functionalities which allow visible traces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sort out functionalities which allow visible traces by guests </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Techniques of data collection and analysis
  15. 15. Results
  16. 16. LCA variable Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>“ Long chain” value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 cases: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overmundo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tonga.Online </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Word Starts With Me </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free Software Foundation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telestreet/NGVision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OC as actor-network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dichotomy Addresser/Addressee not relevant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Short chain” value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 cases: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Akshaya </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proyecto Cyberela </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open Clothes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Frontier Foundation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canal*Accessible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OC as stabilized assemblages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast model </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. DVO variable Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>“ Invisible” or “very low” value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 cases: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Akshaya </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proyecto Cyberela </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World Starts With Me </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tonga.Online </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rather low” value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 cases: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Frontier Foundation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open Clothes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rather high” or “Very high” value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 cases: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free Software Foundation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telestreet/NGVision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dotSUB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canal*ACCESSIBLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membership as process of assimilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SNS (Overmundo) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion
  19. 19. Discussion
  20. 20. Only two variables <ul><li>“ Openness” = porosity of boundaries </li></ul>Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract applicable to a wider range of cases </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinal variables it allows to cluster communities into four typologies </li></ul><ul><li>ANT’s definition of actor-network it allows to track innovation </li></ul>
  21. 21. Paul Ricœur’s distinction Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>Ideology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It tends to preserve identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases in lower-left quadrant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>few mediators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>software establishes impermeable boundaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utopia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It aims at exploring new possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases in upper-right quadrant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>include external elements as mediators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>have not yet closed their digital boundaries to the Outside </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partially permeable boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SNS + UGC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases in upper-left quadrant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness subordinated to status acquisition </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Applicability to Wiki Communities?! Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><ul><li>Wiki communities might find place in each one of the four quadrants: a wiki community will not find place a priori into one of them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only after a careful analysis of access policies they will be located in one of the 4 quadrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T his classification system purposely avoids deterministic correlations between software architecture and openness </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion
  24. 24. Correlation coefficient between LCA and DVO variables (Kendall's tau-c method) Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion
  25. 25. Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion
  26. 26. Possible explanations Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion <ul><li>It could reflect effects of competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Cases submitted in a period (2004-2007) of considerable diffusion of UGC platforms and SNS (mainly located in upper-left quadrant) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Inertial tendency to closeness”??? </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>Thanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tracing back Communities” research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By Annalisa Pelizza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ph.D. at University of Milan-Bicocca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul>Principia Divisionis Method Reasons of the Research Results Discussion

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