An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective and another adverb.
Adverbs tell where, when, how, why, under what circumstances and to what extent.
He drove nearby. [where]
He drove yesterday . [when]
He drove carefully. [how]
He drove because he had to. [why]
He drove while tired. [under what circumstances]
He drove quite carefully. [to what extent]
Adverbs are frequently made from adjectives by adding –ly (roughly, quickly), but not all adverbs end in –ly (first, not, very). Like adjectives, adverbs can also signify degrees of comparison.
(-er/-est, more/less, and most/least)
Adverbs most frequently more frequently frequently nearest nearer near SUPERLATIVE COMPARATIVE POSITIVE
Adverbs of Frequency
never, often, sometimes, seldom, always, even
Adverbs of Degree
even, extremely, more, just, much, quite, only, surely, too, very
A preposition comes before a noun or pronoun to create a phrase that modifies another word in the sentence.
The noun or pronoun is called the object of the preposition , and the phrase that is created is called a prepositional phrase .
She spilled the drink on him.
Prepositions without since in below with round for behind upon respecting except before until past during at unlike over down as underneath out despite around under opposite considering among toward on concerning along to off by after till of but across through next between above than near beside about
A conjunction , like a preposition, shows the relationship between parts of a sentence.
Coordinating Conjunction – connects words, phrases, and clauses of equal rank
and, for, or, yet, but, nor, so
Leslie and Hal caught three rock bass, but they didn’t get any lake trout or pike.
A subordinating conjunction introduces a subordinate clause, and connects it to a main clause.
Unless we hurry, we won’t arrive before the concert starts.
while until since because whether unless rather than as though wherever though in order that as if whereas that if as where than even if although when so before after
Correlative Conjunctions work in pairs to connect words, phrases, clauses and whole sentences.
We will be neither swayed nor delayed in our deliberations.
not only/but also
Conjunctive adverbs can function in two ways – serve as transitional expressions to connect units of thought
Meanwhile , Todd was home making Lisa’s favorite dinner.
- also link main clauses
Lisa thought she’d surprise Todd by picking up pizza for dinner; meanwhile , Todd was home making her favorite fried chicken.
Conjunctions thus otherwise indeed consequently undoubtedly similarly instead conversely therefore now incidentally certainly thereafter nevertheless however besides then moreover hence anyway still meanwhile furthermore also specifically likewise finally accordingly
An interjection is a word or phrase used to express emotion or attract attention.
Independent units not grammatically connected to a sentence, followed by an exclamation point.
Hey! There’s a parade coming.
Oh well, maybe we can do better next time.
A verb expresses action (run, think) or a state of being (is, become, seem).
A complete verb is composed of the main verb itself and any helping verbs that may be used with it.
The most commonly used auxiliary verbs are the nine modals: may, might, shall, will, would, must, should, can and could.
Modals express how the writer/speaker feels about an action. They also express probability, necessity, obligation, or ability.