Empowering user participation with converged semantic services

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Slides discussing how semantics empowers community participation. Presented at STI Innsbruck Summit at lake Garda, June 27, 2012. Credits to my present and past employers: STI Innsbruck, FTW, …

Slides discussing how semantics empowers community participation. Presented at STI Innsbruck Summit at lake Garda, June 27, 2012. Credits to my present and past employers: STI Innsbruck, FTW, University of Surrey.

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  • convergent services include:Using the Internet for voice telephonyVideo on demandFixed-mobile convergenceMobile-to-mobile convergenceLocation-based servicesIntegrated products and bundles
  • Choosing participation
  • Group purchase, like Groupon

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  • 1. Empowering user participation with converged semantic services Dr. Anna Fensel 27 June, 2012; STI Innsbruck Summit©www.sti-innsbruck.at INNSBRUCK www.sti-innsbruck.at Copyright 2012 STI
  • 2. Outline • Motivation for the Research Agenda • About Participation • About Convergent Services • How Semantics and Convergence Foster Participation - Examples – User Generated Mobile Services – Smart Buildings and Grid • Conclusions Disclaimer: The contents of this presentation are not necessarily reflecting opinions of any of my current, past or future employers.www.sti-innsbruck.at 2
  • 3. Outline • Motivation for the Research Agenda • About Participation • About Convergent Services • How Semantics and Convergence Foster Participation - Examples – User Generated Mobile Services – Smart Buildings and Grid • Conclusions Disclaimer: The contents of this presentation are not necessarily reflecting opinions of any of my current, past or future employers.www.sti-innsbruck.at 3
  • 4. Motivation Converged Semantic Services For Empowering Participation Aims: • Enabling efficient participation vs. current social network silos and groups – More possible roles for an individual – More roles at a time for an individual – More matching and satisfying roles for an individual => Motivation, added value and revenue increase Technologically that means: • Benefiting from data and services reuse at the maximum • Enabling participators to establish added value new and converged services on top of the data – commercially re-applying them across platforms =>There is a need to „understand“ and interlink content and objects coming from heterogeneous numerous sourceswww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 5. Motivation: From Heterogeneity to Convergence “Service Science is just ___<name your discipline>____” Service Operations Marketing Management Quality Supply ChainGeneral Human FactorsSystems A Service Design Theory System is Innovation Complex Engineering Systems Computing OR/IE Economics MS Arts Science Information Science (i-schools) CS/AI Economics & Law MIS Anthropology OrganizationMultiagent Systems www.sti-innsbruck.at Game Theory & Psychology Theory 5
  • 6. Positive Example from the Web: Open Graph Protocol • Open Graph Protocol - enables any web page to become a rich object in a social graph. • Developed and used by Facebook – e.g. external “Like button” • Keywords: semantics (RDFa) and simplicity • Can be referred as a “converged service” www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 7. Outline • Motivation for the Research Agenda • About Participation • About Convergent Services • How Semantics and Convergence Foster Participation - Examples – User Generated Mobile Services – Smart Buildings and Grid • Conclusions Disclaimer: The contents of this presentation are not necessarily reflecting opinions of any of my current, past or future employers.www.sti-innsbruck.at 7
  • 8. Young People„s Participation • Psychology perspective: „Child-Adult“www.sti-innsbruck.at 8
  • 9. Participation in Terms of Social Mediawww.sti-innsbruck.at 9
  • 10. 90-9-1 Rule for Participation Inequality • Web use follows a Zipf distribution • Also applicable to social media • Also to working groups? • Is that wrong? – In some cases (e.g. inappropriate match), yes. – In many cases (e.g. dissemination effect), no. Jakob Nielsen, http://www.useit.com/alertbox/participation_inequality.htmlwww.sti-innsbruck.at 10
  • 11. Participation is Linked to Value • Participation level relates to the value one gets from participation • Participation also has a value in itself Lurkers‘Perspective www.sti-innsbruck.at 11
  • 12. Participation is Linked to a RoleÄns - 1 person: gatherer or hunterZwo - 2 persons: gatherer and hunter? – Problem with the role choice starts from the moment where there is a choice.Having more persons implies:• fine-grained devision of labor and service economy,• community as a regulator on which roles are appropriate and which not, as well as their values.www.sti-innsbruck.at 12
  • 13. Impact of Roles/Relations and their Weights on Ontology Evolution Dynamics • People and relations are inherently associated with / connected to / can be decomposed into concepts and properties. – See also: Peter Mika, „Ontologies are Us: A Unified Model of Social Networks and Semantics”. International Semantic Web Conference 2005: 522-536. • Changing the roles drive social, ontology and market evolution. • One of the important drive factors are the quantity of concepts/people relating to another concept/person via a specific property (hub vs. stub), e.g. a property spouse is stronger than friend. Thus, the networks are self-restructuring depending on the roles and weights put on them. – See also: Zhdanova, A.V., Predoiu, L., Pellegrini, T., Fensel, D. "A Social Networking Model of a Web Community". In Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Social Communication, 22-26 January 2007, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, ISBN: 959- 7174-08-1, pp. 537-541 (2007).www.sti-innsbruck.at 13
  • 14. Participation is Linked to a Role• (Semantic) content creation, and thus, participation, is driven by a role – „Role“ is a steadier form of insentives (as e.g. reputation vs. yield management)• Hence, in participation, people/ companies are optimi- zing their roles by taking ones and drop- PICTURE FROM: Zhdanova, A.V., Shvaiko, P. "Community-Driven Ontology Matching". ping others In Proceedings of the 3rd European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC2006), 11-14 June 2006, Budva, Montenegro, Springer-Verlag, LNCS 4011, pp. 34-49 (2006). – Limited time and money• Converged semantic services are to enable users performing in roles unavailable to them before & changing the roles faster when needed. www.sti-innsbruck.at 14
  • 15. Outline • Motivation for the Research Agenda • About Participation • About Convergent Services • How Semantics and Convergence Foster Participation - Examples – User Generated Mobile Services – Smart Buildings and Grid • Conclusions Disclaimer: The contents of this presentation are not necessarily reflecting opinions of any of my current, past or future employers.www.sti-innsbruck.at 15
  • 16. Communication Media Development • Technology Development List • The printed newspaper (1436) • The Silent Pictures (1888) • Radio (1896) • Telephone (1876) Communication technollgies are a • Silicon Chip (1896) medium to participation. • Cellphone (1973) • Digital Camera (1981) To communicate though does not automatically imply to particiapte. • PDA (1981) • The Internet (1983) • Email (1965) • Wikis (1995) • Facebook (2004) • Twitter (2006) – BG Creative, A Brief History of Media Convergence: 4000 BC to 2009 AD, August 20, 2009www.sti-innsbruck.at 16
  • 17. Convergence • “Telecommunications convergence, network convergence or simply convergence are broad terms used to describe emerging telecommunications technologies, and network architecture used to migrate multiple communications services into a single network.[1] Specifically this involves the converging of previously distinct media such as telephony and data communications into common interfaces on single devices.” – Wikipedia • Convergent technologies/services include: – IP Multimedia Subsystem – Session Initiation Protocol – IPTV – Voice over IP – Voice call continuity – Digital video broadcasting - handheldwww.sti-innsbruck.at 17
  • 18. Link to Value - Mobile Operators‘ Use Case -Business Potential of Openness and Collaborationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 18
  • 19. Increasing Participation –From Static Social Network Silos to Pervasive Social Spaces ...where everyone benefits. Semantic technologies take you there.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 20. Semantics in One Slide • Larger markets are to come2010 • Linked Open Data cloud counts 25 billion triples • Open government initiatives • BBC, Facebook, Google, Yahoo, etc. use semantics2008 • SPARQL becomes W3C recommendation • Life science and other Source: Open Knowledge Foundation scientific communities use ontologies2004 • RDF, OWL become W3C recommedations • Research field on ontologies and semantics appears2001 • Term „Semantic Web“ has been „seeded“, Scientific American article, Tim Berners-Lee et al. www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 21. From Semantic Web to Semantic World: Data Challenges• Large volumes of raw data to smaller volumes of „processed“ data – Streaming, new data acquisition infrastructures – Data modeling, mining, analysis, processing, distribution – Complex event processing (e.g. in-house behaviour identification)• Data which is neither „free“ nor „open“ – How to store, discover and link it – How to sell it – How to define and communicate its quality / provenance – How to get the stekeholders in the game, create marketplaces• Establishment of radically new B2B and B2C services – „Tomorrow, your carton of milk will be on the Internet“ – J. da Silva, referring to Internet of Things – But how would the services look like?www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 22. Outline • Motivation for the Research Agenda • About Participation • About Convergent Services • How Semantics and Convergence Foster Participation - Examples – User Generated Mobile Services – Smart Buildings and Grid • Conclusions Disclaimer: The contents of this presentation are not necessarily reflecting opinions of any of my current, past or future employers.www.sti-innsbruck.at 22
  • 23. Mobile OntologyVillalonga, C., Strohbach, M., Snoeck, N., Sutterer, M., Belaunde, M., Kovacs, E., Zhdanova,A.V., Goix, L.W., Droegehorn, O. "Mobile Ontology: Towards a Standardized Semantic Model for the MobileDomain". In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Telecom Service Oriented Architectures(TSOA 2007) at the 5th International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing, 17 September 2007,Vienna, Austria (2007). www.sti-innsbruck.at 23
  • 24. Participation in Different Roles in Ontology ConstructionActual Split – SPICE Integrated Project Example Zhdanova, A.V., Li, N., Moessner, K. “Semantic Web in Ubiquitous Mobile Communications”. The Semantic Web for Knowledge and Data Management (Ed.: Ma, Z.), IGI Global (August 2008). www.sti-innsbruck.at 24
  • 25. Participation in Collaborative Ontology Construction for „Newbies“ - Challenges • Educational: people with no/little knowledge on ontologies require at least an introduction to the field; • Methodology: yet no widely accepted or best practice solutions on how to acquire ontologies from people in such a setting; • Basic technology: current ontology language standards (such as OWL) cause confusion and awkward modelling solutions; • Tool support: better tools for ontology construction process coordination, documentation would help to avoid ad-hoc solutions and manual work. Zhdanova, A.V., Li, N., Moessner, K. “Semantic Web in Ubiquitous Mobile Communications”. The Semantic Web for Knowledge and Data Management (Ed.: Ma, Z.), IGI Global (August 2008).www.sti-innsbruck.at 25
  • 26. Microservices Scenario: Traffic Jam KillerMotivation: Share knowledge about the fluidity of the traffic and presence of mobile radars with friends. 26www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 27. m:Ciudad – Underlying Magic Service User NET warehouse management Knowledge WORK warehouse Execution Environment Operating System Services TER Service MI Capabilities NAL Capabilities Management 27www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 28. Architecture - detailed building blocks mCiudad GUI / launcher m:Ciudad Framework SSEs Authoring / SCK Authorization, Profile mgr Accounting access control User & Group Hosted mgmt SEE backend communication Notif. mgmt view capabilitiesCapabilities Mgr Service publisher Service Exec Service provider enablersEmbedded capab. Remote caps Env Metadata creation Service storage (templates, KW service Serv Metadata ontology instances lifecycle SW SSEs) My Service & State Search engine Provider/service Ontology parsing Registry Mgr client Matching table persistent DB Rule & Policy Context & controller profile Search engine manager Service availability sensors Recommender tracker gateways Overlay network www.sti-innsbruck.at 28
  • 29. Microservice description language Made of SSE‟s Semantic Service Semantic Description Content Description Semantic Operational Description Service Profile Description Rendering (UDL-SP) Description SSE‟s Capability Service Local Operational Searchable Service Service Profile Content Meta- Metadata Metadata Logic Rendering (UDL-CP) (UDL-CD) data (UDL-SL) (UDL-SR) Service Backus-Naur SSE Content Service & XML-Schema Domain profile XML-Schema Semantic Characterization Operational Characterization of Service and Capabilities of Service Legend Ont. Instances Ontology XML docwww.sti-innsbruck.at 29
  • 30. Architecture of Knowledge Warehousewww.sti-innsbruck.at 30
  • 31. Service Creation Kit – First Mock-up and Approaches: “Block-based” and “Question Answering”Version 1• Visual C++, Windows Mobile• Goal: Study on Block approach usabilityVersion 2• Flash Lite, Windows Mobile• Goal: Wizzard approach, Carroussel UI 31 31 www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 32. User Survey – Study Set Up• Goal: improve understanding of users needs, experiences, and expectations on user-generated mobile services – From a knowledge management point of view• URI: http://survey.ftw.at/microservices• 38 questions, incl. video demonstrations• Distributed via professional and interest mailing lists, social networks• Answers being collected since June 2009• Participants: 138 persons (52 fully completed)• Plus several face-to-face usability tests with persons (to confirm the findings)Danado, J., Davies, M., Ricca, P., Fensel, A. "An Authoring Tool for User Generated Mobile Services".In Proceedings of the 3rd Future Internet Symposium (FIS10), 20-22 September 2010, Berlin, Germany;Springer Verlag, LNCS 6369, pp. 118-127 (2010). www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 33. User Survey – Need for Our Technology• Ca. 2/3 of users feel the need to adapt services or apps they use• Ca. 1/3 of users feel the need to create their own services and appsUser profile: – Almost all between 20 and 50 years old, Europeans – ca. 70% male, 30% female – Majority is a researcher or engineer with a Master degree, also large shares with a Bachelor or a PhD – Daily average internet usage is 5 hours – Half of the respondents access the internet via mobile www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 34. Evaluations – Mobile Service Creation • Customisation – drag&drop (matching blocks) – end-user programming • Davies, M., Carrez, F., Heinilä, J., Fensel, A., Narganes, M., Danado, J. "m:Ciudad -- Enabling End-User Mobile Service Creation", International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications Emerald Group Publishing, Vol. 7 Iss: 4, pp. 384-414 (2011). • Davies, M., Carrez, F., Urdiales, D., Fensel, A., Narganes, M., Danado, J. "Defining User-Generated Services in a Semantically-Enabled Mobile Platform". In Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Information Integration and Web-based Applications & Services (iiWAS2010), 8-10 November 2010, Paris, France, ACM (2010).www.sti-innsbruck.at 34
  • 35. Outline • Motivation for the Research Agenda • About Participation • About Convergent Services • How Semantics and Convergence Foster Participation - Examples – User Generated Mobile Services – Smart Buildings and Grid • Conclusions Disclaimer: The contents of this presentation are not necessarily reflecting opinions of any of my current, past or future employers.www.sti-innsbruck.at 35
  • 36. Smart Grids - Technology Radar empowering renewable energy „prosumers“ consumer „manipulation“ raising consumer demand-response management Web-Grid awareness convergence data-intensive services automatisation Internet of Things M2M services energy control & monotoring large-scale & stream data processing CIM, OPC & other models EU 2050 nearly-zero goal (semantic) service smart metering description, discovery, On market composiion Product concept Applied Research Relevance Basic Research high medium lowwww.sti-innsbruck.at 36
  • 37. Market Situation • Currently: fragmented offers, closed systems, low interoperability, information difficult to find or combine – Information Services • E-Control, energy companies, energy consultancies – Smart Metering & Home Automation • Still waiting to come, trials, closed systems, services offered by energy companies • Closed sniffer systems (optical sensors, clams) , no closed loop – no impact on energy management • Specialized systems (security, heating), some open, most closed, some portal based , not part of energy managementwww.sti-innsbruck.at 37
  • 38. Green Marketplace • Information portal to disseminate in a personalized manner the information about available products and services • RECOIL = Recommender Optimized via Identified Links for Renewable Energy • E‐commerce platform combining an advertisement platform and an online shop, through which customers can purchase – Partner hardware Context / services – Mobile apps and games Energy Data – Coupons for appliances Products Portal – Add-value info services Consumer Serviceswww.sti-innsbruck.at 38
  • 39. Potential Customers / Partners & Their BenefitsCustomer Group Benefit Citizens and private households  Energy awareness and control -> cost Facility managers (private and public) and energy savings Construction companies and investors  Personalized recommendation of products and services Large manufacturers of energy efficient  Targeted promotion of products, appliances , home automation devices and winning of new customers renewable energy equipment,  “Green” PR Small manufacturers of appliances and  Better benchmarking through specialized devices such as for smart home consumption data and information automation, retailers, especially those without about energy efficiency of business strong Web presence, market holders processes Municipalities and their utility companies who  Advertisement of services, programs, offer energy optimization services and energy solutions consultancy agencies, ministries (energy,  Better customer management environment, spatial planning)  Better in-sector awareness Energy supplier companies Tourism companies: hotels, tourism settlements Energy efficiency bodies www.sti-innsbruck.at 39
  • 40. Background2 FFG COIN Projects (sesame-s.ftw.at)• SESAME – Semantic Smart Metering, Enablers for Energy Efficiency (9’09-11’10, 800k Euro) – Prototype, proof of concepts, feasibility study• SESAME-S – Services for Energy Efficiency (4’11-9’11, 770k Euro) – setting up usable smart home hardware, a portal and repository – organizing a test installation in real buildings: in a school (Kirchdorf, Austria) and a factory (Chernogolovka, Russia) – developing specialized UIs and designing mobile apps for the school use case• Consortium partner network of 6 organizations www.sti-innsbruck.at 40
  • 41. Data Acquisition © FTW 2011www.sti-innsbruck.at 41
  • 42. Data Acquisition – Extended, SESAME-S © FTW 2011www.sti-innsbruck.at 42
  • 43. Data Acquisitionwww.sti-innsbruck.at 43
  • 44. Extension to More Buildings • Research challenge: moving logics components, such as building automation settings, user preferences.www.sti-innsbruck.at 44
  • 45. Many Stakeholders - Same Data • Ministries (Ministry of Infrastructure and Energetics, Ministry of Environment…) • Provincial councils and centers • Energy efficiency bodies • Energy companies • Municipalities • Construction companies and Investors • Home-automation market holders • Home-appliance market holders • Tourism companies: hotels, tourism settlements • Telecommunication companies • Cloud service providers • … © FTW 2011www.sti-innsbruck.at 45
  • 46. Smart Home End User Services © FTW 2011www.sti-innsbruck.at 46
  • 47. Energy Efficient Buildings –User Trials• Over 50 users were interviewed f2f plus over a 100 online• Some outcomes – „Saving costs“ is the strongest motivator, “reputation“ is the weakest – Main system cost expectation is 200 Euro per installation, plus up to 5 Euro as a monthly fee, with energy savings of 20% – Preference to delegate unobtrusive tasks (e.g. stand by device management vs. lights control) – Every 4th user will choose the „fanciest“ and not the „easiest to use“ interface – 2/3rds of users are „absolutely sure“ or „sure“ they„d use such or a similar system in the future – 2/3rds of users would also share their home settings with „friends“• Fensel, A., Tomic, S., Kumar, V., Stefanovic, M., Aleshin, S., Novikov, D. "SESAME-S: Semantic Smart Home System forEnergy Efficiency". In Proceedings of D-A-CH Energieinformatik 2012, 5-6 July 2012, Oldenburg, Germany.• Schwanzer, M., Fensel, A. "Energy Consumption Information Services for Smart Home Inhabitants". In Proceedings of the3rd Future Internet Symposium (FIS10), 20-22 September 2010, Berlin, Germany; Springer Verlag, LNCS 6369, pp. 78-87. www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 48. End User Attitudes © FTW 2011www.sti-innsbruck.at 48
  • 49. End User Expectations © FTW 2010www.sti-innsbruck.at 49
  • 50. Smart Home InstallationSchool, Kirchdorf - AT• Several Smart Meters• Sensors (e.g. light, temperature, humidity)• Smart plugs, for individual sockets• Shutdown services for PCs• User interfaces and apps: Web, tablet, smartphone (Android)Factory, Chernogolovka - RU• Heating system regulation and monitoring extensionwww.sti-innsbruck.at 50
  • 51. Services Addressing Users @ School• Energy awareness, monitoring• Remote control - manual and programmed - e.g. scheduled activities and triggering rules• How do we get the users? – By having workshops with pupils: introduction to energy efficiency, building analysis, explaining the system and serviceswww.sti-innsbruck.at 51
  • 52. Demand Management@ Smart Building Millions of triples collected in the semantic repositorywww.sti-innsbruck.at 52
  • 53. How Green I Am @ www.alphaverda.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 53
  • 54. Outline • Motivation for the Research Agenda • About Participation • About Convergent Services • How Semantics and Convergence Foster Participation - Examples – User Generated Mobile Services – Smart Buildings and Grid • Conclusions Disclaimer: The contents of this presentation are not necessarily reflecting opinions of any of my current, past or future employers.www.sti-innsbruck.at 54
  • 55. Conclusions • Semantic technology as an enabler for the individuals and organisations to participate productively – By getting new roles. – By changing existing roles easier. • Examples have been shown: – Mobile prosumers creating mobile services – Energy prosumer in smart buildings Possible future research aspects include data analytics e.g. for: • Scenarios involving heterogeneous multiple stakeholders. • Changing/steering behavior, engagement of users/customers. • Enabling participation vs. yield management / resilience. – “Resilience is the ability to provide and maintain an acceptable level of service in the face of faults and challenges to normal operation.”, “A superset of survivability.” - Wikipediawww.sti-innsbruck.at 55
  • 56. Questions?www.sti-innsbruck.at 56