What Is Neurofeedback And How Can It Help


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  • Most addictive substances increase availability of dopamine as well as moderate stress and aggression.
  • What Is Neurofeedback And How Can It Help

    1. 1. Understanding The Brain/Body Connection An Overview of Brain Mapping and NeuroIntegration Technology
    2. 2. The Amazing Brain • Average number of neurons in the brain: 100,000,000,000 • Length of myelinated nerve fibers in the brain: 93,210 miles to 111,800 miles • There are forty quadrillion potential patterns of connection in a single brain • The brain is approximately 78% water • Time until unconscious after loss of blood supply to brain 8-10 seconds
    3. 3. The Brain IS… • …the most complex structure in the known universe. • …like an ecosystem— dynamic and adaptable. • …capable of learning and re-organizing at any stage of life. • …the greatest consumer of glucose and oxygen in the body. • …in control of the body.
    4. 4. The Brain is NOT… • …the Mind. • …hard-wired after a certain age. • …the sole product of either nature or nurture.
    5. 5. Divisions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System • Processes incoming information from PNS • Monitors, controls co- ordinates • Issues the command Peripheral Nervous System • Gathers information from the environment • Executes the command
    6. 6. The Cortex • 80% of human brain • 6 cell layers • It is the grey matter that covers the outermost layer of the brain like a nutshell • White matter underneath is the wiring that connects the cortex for long distant communication. • Cells live in columns • Top layers: ‘inter-office’ memos • Middle Layers: the ‘in box’ • Bottom Layers: the ‘out box’ • Most of the EEG we capture from the scalp is from the top layers
    7. 7. Brain Regions & Their General Function Frontal Lobes • Higher cognitive functions • Reasoning • Parts of speech • ST memory • Attention • Emotional inhibition Parietal Lobes • Movement & body awareness • Orientation & location • Recognition & association • Arousal & perception of stimuli
    8. 8. Brain Regions & Their General Function Occipital Lobes • Visual processing • Arousal Temporal Lobes • Memory • Comprehension • Major convergence zone Cerebellum • Balance • Motor sequencing Brain Stem • Primary arousal • Consciousness
    9. 9. Limbic System • Thalamus • Amygdala • Cingulate Gyrus • Hypothalamus • Hippocampus
    10. 10. Thalamus • Sensory way station • Preliminary processing and integration of all sensory inputs
    11. 11. Amygdala • “The amygdala provides a preconscious bias to every stimulus you come into contact with, even before you actually pay attention to it. It can, and does, operate outside consciousness.” JJ Ratey, M.D.
    12. 12. Cingulate Gyrus: Executive Secretary & Gear Shifter • Regulates what information is passed to the orbitofrontal cortex—gateway to consciousnes • Extensive connections throughout brain—regulates and co-ordinates other regions involved in attention • Attention, emotion, memory, somatic and autonomic motor responses, motivation, pain • Area of action of cocaine, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, marijuana, chocolate, LSD, Ritalin, amphetamines— causing dopamine release
    13. 13. A Single Neuron • The cell body receives information from other cells connected to its dendrites. • The other cells’ signals vote on whether this cell should fire a signal. • The cell body develops an electrical charge or signal in response to the votes. • The signal travels down the axon to other cells to vote as well. • The waxing and waning of these voting charges creates the EEG.
    14. 14. Microscopic and Macroscopic
    15. 15. Neurotransmitters • Epinephrine: important for motivation, energy & mental focus • Norepinephrine: important for mental focus, emotional stability and endocrine function • Dopamine: responsible for feelings of pleasure & satisfaction, muscle control, muscle function and GI issues; modulates pain • PEA: important for focus and concentration • Glutamate: primary excitatory neurotransmitter, necessary for learning and memory • Seratonin: plays important role in mood, sleep & appetite.
    16. 16. Basic EEG Morphology • Beta waves 15-36hz – High beta is associated with anxious hyperactive thinking – Low beta is associated with alert active things • SMR 12-15 hz – Associated with external focus • Alpha waves 8-12hz – Associated with relaxed awareness • Theta waves 4-7hz – Associated with internal focus • Delta waves .5-4hz – Associated with deep, dreamless sleep
    17. 17. Arousal Theory & EEG • Alpha Waves - Thalamus - Attention & self awareness • Beta Waves - Cortex - Processing • Theta Waves - Limbic System - Memory & emotions - Coordination of processing • Delta Waves - Brain stem - Continuity & sleep
    18. 18. Functional Organization • Hierarchy of brain function. The human brain is organized from the most simple (e.g., fewest cells: brainstem) to most complex (e.g., most cells and most synapses: frontal cortex). The various functions of the brain, from most simple and reflexive (e.g., regulation of body temperature) to most complex (e.g., abstract thought), are mediated in parallel with these levels. Bruce D. Perry, M.D., Ph.D.
    19. 19. NeuroPlasticity • ‘Neurons that fire together wire together.’ (D.O.Hebb - 1949 “Hebbian Learning”) • Our brains are constantly changing. • Every experience, thought, action and emotion actually changes the structure of our brains. • There are more possible ways to connect the brain’s neurons than there are atoms in the universe.
    20. 20. Plasticity and Use Dependency • The brain is plastic. – It responds to demand by increasing efficiency – Habit formation • Use it or lose it. – Decline in the variety of stimulus, drives a decline in use, which drives a decline in capacity. – Years in formal education directly correlate to a reduction in age-related cognitive decline independent of age, birthplace occupation, income or native language.
    21. 21. Conditioning • I Pavlov and his DAWGS • B F Skinner: reward-based reinforcement learning can explain much of behavior (Skinner – 193; Thorndike – 1911; Pavlov - 1905) • Skinner showed that reward governs much of human and animal behavior • He discovered operant conditioning
    22. 22. Brain Imaging & Mapping • SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) • fMRI (functional MRI) • QEEG (quantitative EEG) • PET (positron emission tomography) • CAT scan (computer axial tomography)
    23. 23. QEEG - The Brainmap • The brainmap is much like a weather map • It provides information about what frequencies or component bands are high or low at different locations
    24. 24. Brain Too Fast • The red shaded area shows the front of the brain as being overactive and producing too much beta.
    25. 25. Brain Too Slow • The red shaded area shows the front of the brain as being underactive and producing too much alpha.
    26. 26. Distributions of Disorder • LD often appears as posterior elevated delta • ADHD often appears as elevated frontal theta • Depression often appears as elevated central or frontal alpha • Anxiety often appears as elevated frontal beta often in conjunction with diminished alpha • Depression often also appears as more slowing on the left, while anxiety appears as increased activity on the right
    27. 27. Discriminants • Discriminants indicate probability of a problem present • Discriminants are not indicators of severity of a health challenge • We match symptoms and behaviors to discriminants • Discriminants are for the purpose of NFB training, not medication or medical intervention
    28. 28. Cognitive Analysis • Cognitive analysis indicates probability of a processing problem present • We match subjective complaints to formal scientific categories
    29. 29. Emotional Analysis
    30. 30. Before and After • “Normal” known • Most conditions have a typical pattern of departure from normal, which is the cause of the subjective experience • Train to return to normal • As function normalizes, perception and experience change and symptoms lessen Pre Map with high theta Post map with normal theta
    31. 31. Stress • Cortisol binds to receptor sites in the hippocampus, which is central to memory formation • Cortisol destroys brain cells; increases metabolism so cells essentially overheat and die • Cannot learn complex tasks if running stress response • Improved tolerance to stress in CNS is only way to underwrite hormonal restoration—the brain issues the signal!
    32. 32. Background on Closed Head Injuries and TBI • On average, 1.4 million people sustain a TBI each year in the United States • TBI is caused by a bump, blow or jolt to the head • TBIs can be mild, moderate or severe
    33. 33. Closed Head Injury • Reduction in local perfusion • Drop in metabolic capacity of tissue • Drop in net frequency and amplitude • Less access to higher frequency activity • Reduction in higher level processing • Birth trauma
    34. 34. Signs of Closed Head Injuries • Low-grade headache that won’t go away • Having more trouble than usual remembering things or paying attention • Slowness in thinking or speaking • Getting lost or easily confused • Feeling tired all of the time • Change in sleep patterns • Loss of balance, feeling light- headed or dizzy • Increased sensitivity to lights, sounds, distractions • Loss of sense of taste or smell • Ringing in ears • Change in sexual drive • Mood changes
    35. 35. Neurotoxins Biological • Bacteria • Candida • Fungus • Molds • Mycoplasmas • Viruses Environmental • Metals • Pesticides • Alcohol • Drugs • Cigarettes
    36. 36. Neurotoxins in Pregnancy Nicotine • 50% greater incidence of mental retardation • 3x more ADD • Reduces blood placental blood flow, CO • Interrupts neural migration • Deregulates dopamine system Mercury • One of the most toxic substances on earth. • WHO: “unsafe at any level” • Affinity for lipids—myelin • Causes structural proteins to break apart …cross the placenta and accumulate at higher concentrations in the fetus.
    37. 37. Alcohol Abuse Normal 38 y/o: 17 years of heavy weekend use
    38. 38. Marijuana Normal Underside 28 y/o: 10 years of mostly weekend use; underside surface view decreased pfc & temporal lobe activity
    39. 39. ADD • “The first evidence for the brain being under stimulated was introduced with the use of more advanced… EEG… by Joel Lubar from the University of Tennessee. He demonstrated that when ADD children and teenagers performed a concentration task there was an increased amount of slow brain wave activity in their frontal lobes, instead of the usual increase in fast brain wave activity that was seen in the majority of the control group.” Dr. Daniel Amen
    40. 40. ADD Spect Studies ADD at rest: note mild decrease prefrontal area ADD at concentration: note marked decrease prefrontal cortex and left temporal lobe
    41. 41. Autism • Unable to process quickly changing or intense stimuli • Fragmented sensory input as unable to keep up • Sensory dis-integration; cannot integrate information from more than one sense—thalamus • Delayed processing; miss social cues—smile • Difficulty in sorting information from noise • Behavior aimed at shutting off sensory overload • Less cell die-off, greater representation internally of external world—too much information to process or threshold for stimulation set too low • Teething often sets pain perception thresholds
    42. 42. Parkinson’s Disease and the Dopamine Deficiency Pandemic • Electro-chemical condition • Motor cortex disturbance exacerbated by stress • Increasing in USA; also increasing ADHD, addictions, reward deficiency and culture of instant gratification! (from article: “Is Google making us stupid??”)
    43. 43. 1,000.0 1.0 19801970 100.0 10.0 19751960 19901985 19951965 0.1 Figure 5. Age-adjusted death rates for selected leading causes of death: United States, 1958-2005 standard population ICD-7 ICD-8 ICD-9 Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis 1 Malignant neoplasms 1 Accidents (unintentional injuries) 1 Cerebrovascular diseases 1 Diseases of heart 1 1 Circled numbers indicate ranking of conditions as leading causes of death in 2005. NOTE: Age-adjusted rates per 100,000 U.S. standard population, see “Technical Notes.” 2 3 5 7 1 Alzheimer’s disease 1 13 1958 2000 ICD-10 Hypertension 1 Parkinson’s disease 1 9 14 2005
    44. 44. Why EEG Neurofeedback? • Interacts directly with behavior of cortex bypassing consciously held agendas • Utilizes the principles by which the brain learns: engage, reward, repeat and re-enforce • Drives plastic change • Easy to participate • Lasting change: THE BRAIN LEARNS!
    45. 45. NeuroIntegration Technology
    46. 46. Sterman’s Research On Alpha & Arousal • Pilots who were able to consistently return to a resting alpha state after engaging a task had greater stamina and performed better than pilots who did not (Sterman, 1995) • Arousal should vary and adjust with task complexity • Withdraw Sensorimotor Inputs:SMR appears • Withdraw Cognitive Processing: Alpha appears • Withdraw vigilance: Theta appears (Sterman, 1994)
    47. 47. Creating a Healthier Brain Water Exercise Diet Meditation CranioSacral Massage
    48. 48. Nutritional Support Essential Fatty Acids • ProEFA Multi Vitamin • BioBalancer • BioMatrix Antioxidants • PhytoRad Antioxidant • CoQ10
    49. 49. Homeopathic and Herbal Support Homeopathics • ReHydration • Circulopath • Hypothalmapath • Inflamma-Chord Herbal • Core Gingko Blend • Core St. Johns Wort
    50. 50. Targeted Amino Acid Support • Seratran • Travacor • AdreCor • Kavinace • 5-HTP Spray • EndoTrex • EndoPlus • Calm PRT
    51. 51. Resources • Dr. Richard Soutar Doing NeuroFeedback • Dr. Daniel Amen Change Your Brain, Change Your Life Healing ADD • John Demos Getting Started with Neurofeedback
    52. 52. Remember • The function of your brain determines your level of consciousness and your experience of the world. • YOU are not your brain, not a product of its collective function nor its learned and habitually expressed patterns of behavior—these will change over time. • YOU are the uniting principle behind all these things. • You should be running your brain, not the other way round!